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Najnowsza historia Stonehenge

An Illustrated History of Britain
by David McDowall
Addison Wesley Longman, 1989

"After 3000 BC the chalkland people started building great circles of earth banks and ditches. Inside, they built wooden buildings and stone circles. These "henges", as they are called, were centres of religious, political and economic power. By far the most spectacular, both then and now, was Stonehenge, which was built in separate stages over a period of more than a thousand years. The precise purposes of Stonehenge remain a mystery, but during the second phase of building, after about 2400 BC, huge bluestones were brought to the site from south Wales. This could only have been achieved because the political authority of the area surrounding Stonehenge was recognised over a very large area, indeed probably over the whole of the British Isles. The movement of these bluestones was an extremely important event, the story of which was passed on from generation to generation." 


A Little History of Astro-Archaeology
byJohn Michell
Thames & Hudson; Updated edition (May 2001)
ISBN: 0500275572

Stonehenge today is a battlefield, not only for police and festivalgoers at midsummer but also for rival camps of archaeologists, astronomers, and other researchers into the mysteries of prehistoric religion and science. Controversy flared up in 1963, when Gerald Hawkins made early use of the computer to identify Stonehenge as an observatory for the sun and moon and an instrument for predicting eclipses. Further studies of megalithic sites by Alexander Thom proved that many of them were also related to the seasonal positions of the heavenly bodies. The study of astro-archaeology has now expanded worldwide, bringing new revelations about the mystical sciences of antiquity. This "little history" summarizes the issues involved in astro-archaeology, and illustrates its principal sites and personalities. Included are recent findings of British scientists, whose records of anomalous levels of natural energies at stone circles are in accordance with the magical reputations of such places in local folklore. The present state of research and the exciting prospects for astro-archaeology in the future are summed up in the final chapter. 97 b/w illustrations. Previously published under the title Secrets of the Stones


History of the Kings of Britain
by Geofrey of Monmouth
Translated by Sebastian Evans in 1903
Dent&Sons Ltd London 1963


Unto whom Merlin:
"If thou be fain to grace the burial-place of these men with a work that shall endure for ever, send for the Dance of the Giants that is in Killare, a mountain in Ireland. For a structure of stones is there that none of this age could arise save his wit were strong enough to carry his art. For the stones be big, nor is there stone anywhere of more virtue, and, so they be set up round this plot in a circle, even as they be now there set up, here shall they stand for ever." AT these words of Merlin, Aurelius burst out laughing, and quoth he: "But how may this be, that stones of such bigness and in a country so tar away may be brought hither, as if Britain were lacking in stones enow for the job?" Whereunto Merlin made answer: "Laugh not so lightly. King, for not lightly are these words spoken. For in these stones is a mystery, and a healing virtue against many ailments. Giants of old did carry them from the furthest ends of Africa and did set them up in Ireland what time they did inhabit therein. And unto this end they did it, that they might make them baths therein whensoever they ailed of any malady, for they did wash the stones and pour forth the water into the baths, whereby they that were sick were made whole. Moreover, they did mix confections of herbs with the water, whereby they that were wounded had healing, for not a stone is there that lacketh in virtue of leechcraft." When the Britons heard these things, they bethought them that it were well to send for the stones, and to harry the Irish folk by force of arms if they should be minded to withhold them. At last they made choice of Uther Pendragon, the King's brother, with fifteen thousand men, to attend to this business. They made choice also of Merlin, so that whatsoever might have to be done should be dealt with according his wit and counsel. Then, as soon
as the ships are ready, they put to sea and make tor Ireland with a prosperous gale.
BUT Constantine pursued the Saxons and subdued them unto his allegiance; and took the two sons of Modred. The one youth, who had fled into the church of St. Amphibalus at Winchester, he slew before the altar; but the other, who was in hiding in the monastery of certain brethren in London, he did there find beside the altar and slew by a cruel death. In the third year thereafter he was himself slain by Conan, smitten by God's judgment, and was buried by the side of Uther Pendragon within the structure of stones set together with marvellous art not far from Salisbury which in the English tongue is called Stonehenge.

Standing Stones: Stonehenge, Carnac and the World of Megaliths (New Horizons)
by Jean Pierre Mohen
Thames and Hudson Ltd (March 15, 1999)
ISBN: 0500300909
Who built the megaliths, those massive stone structures ranging from tombs to standing stones that date back to over 4000 BC? Why were they built? How were the enormous stones transported and erected? Were these strange, sacred stones used as temples or tombs, sculptures or houses? Covering the best-known sites - Avebury and Stonehenge in England, Carnac in France and Knowth in Ireland - and also less famous examples in Scandinavia, Malta, Egypt and Spain, this book considers the special significance - architectural, scientific, religious and cultural - of these enigmatic Neolithic stone structures. (


Stukeley Illustrated: William Stukeley's Rediscovery of Britain's Ancient Sites
by Neil Mortimer
Green Magic Books (September, 2003)
ISBN: 9780954296338


For the first time, this book brings together over 100 of the best engravings from Stukeley's most brilliant books, Stonehenge: A Temple Restor’d to the British Druids, Abury: A Temple of the British Druids and Itinerarium Curiosum. Stukeley Illustrated shows how this meticulous and inspired draughtsman changed the way we look at ancient sites. It is a tribute to an increasingly relevant figure, and is indispensable to anyone interested in the sacred sites and landscapes of the British Isles. (

One hundred superb, full-page, high-quality line art reproductions of William Stukeley's original artwork of Stonehenge from 1732. William Stukeley was the first to chronicle the greatest stone circles in the world: Stonehenge and Avebury. One of the 18th Century's greatest characters, he was friend and colleague to the most gifted men of his time, including Sir Isaac Newton. Stukeley's work

laid the foundations for the modern study of prehistoric monuments
influenced the Druidic Revival
inspired some of William Blake's paintings

This is a tribute to an increasingly relevant figure, and is indispensable to anyone interested in the sacred sites and landscapes of the British Isles.

Neil Mortimer born in Bristol, England, is a printer by trade. He has edited 3rd Stone magazine since 1996 and writes a column about archaeology and folklore for Fortean Times. He is currently editing William Stukeley's 1723 Stonehenge manuscript with Aubrey Burl for publication in 2004 by Yale University. (

Stonehenge : A New Interpretation of Prehistoric Man and the Cosmos
by John David North

Free Press 1997; ISBN: 0684845121

From Kirkus Reviews , September 1, 1997
Mysterious Stonehenge has been a magnet for theorists of every stripe for centuries. This new interpretation, by a historian of science (Groningen Univ., the Netherlands), argues that it was both an astronomical observatory and a map of the heavensActually, North's net is spread much wider than the title suggests. He begins with a discussion of the structure and orientation of long barrows (or mounds) and ends up examining almost every class of prehistoric megalithic monument on the British Isles as well as some in Western Europe. North has little patience with the idea that the megalithciting some of the better-preserved monuments that have precise -builders were crude workmen, alignments of various points with certain fixed starsa historical progression from the early long barrows to the later . He finds stone avenues and rowsmade of wood, then stone) the culmination of the tradition. , with henges (circular enclosures first Stonehenge itself evolved over some provides a complete inventory of its components and 2,000 years, and North reconstructs the various stages of its growthstone rings are carefully diagrammed, and various . The sight lines through the astronomical relationships spelled outvarious themes in a discussion of the . Finally, the author brings together his astronomically based rituals and beliefs he feels we can deduce from the evidence he has compiled. The wealth of detail here, combined with copious diagrams and calculationsis not familiar (at least through other , is likely to overwhelm the reader who booksfolklore and other colorful accretions ) with the monuments under consideration. And while North pays due homage to to the subjectare more likely to skim than read. An , his highly technical approach makes this a book many casual antiquarians important contribution to the literature of this fascinating subjectspecialist than for the common reader. , then, but more for the (LP. All rights reserved. 212 line drawings, 29 photos, not seen) -- Copyright 1997, Kirkus Associates,
In a book that finally solves the riddle of Stonehenge, scholar John North draws on more than 15 years of research to offer a masterful "case-closed" study in which he examines the monument from all available angles--archeological, astronomical, and spiritual--and considers relevant research from other prehistoric remains in Britain and Northern Europe. of illustrations.
In a book that finally solves the riddle of Stonehenge, scholar John North draws on more than 15 years of research to offer a masterful "case-closed" study in which he examines the monument from all available angles--archeological, astronomical, and spiritual--and considers relevant research from other prehistoric remains in Britain and Northern Europe.


Stonehenge, Neolithic Man and the Cosmos
by John David North
Harper & Collins 1996,
ISBN 0 00 255850 5


cover"As the sub-title suggests, John North's emphasis is on astronomical alignments. The subject gets a competent and scholarly approach which is rare in the field of archaeoastronomy, but North's writing remains approachable and understandable by the intelligent layman. Highly recommended for those interested in astronomical alignments of megalithic structure, this book comers the subject in fascinating depth. I find myself not entirely convinced of some of his hypotheses, but they are well-argued, and his argument for a winter solstice sunset alignment rather than the opposite popularly known midsummer solstice sunrise alignment is very convincing." Richard Muthar ( 



The Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary
Clarendon Press, Oxford (1991)

"Stonehenge: (steün'hendj) A unique megalithic monument on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England. Its alleged connection with the Druids dates from the 17th c., when people's ideas about what constituted 'the past' were very vague. In the 12th c. it was believed to be a monument over King Arthur's grave; other theories have attributed it to the Phoenicians, Romans, Vikings, and visitors from other worlds; modern theory inclines to the view that it was a temple. Scientific study and excavation have identified three main constructional phases between c.3000 BC and c.1500 BC, i.e. it was completed in the Bronze Age. The circular bank and ditch, double circle of 'bluestones' (spotted dolerite), and circle of sarsen stones (some with white lintels), are concentric, and the main axis is aligned on the midsummer sunrise--an orientation that was probably for ritual rather than scientific purposes."

Stonehenge - Wonders of the World
by Catherine M. Petrini
KidHaven Press; 1 edition (August 30, 2005)
ISBN-10: 0737730730
ISBN-13: 978-0737730739

kliknij by powiekszycReview
Booklist : "There's plenty of information to support reports, all of which is presented in veteran series writer Kallen's straightforward, sometimes lively language. Each useful volume concludes with a glossary and further readings."
-- Booklist (May 2003)
School Library Journal : "This book does a fine job of making connections between the modern world and ancient history. Full-color photos, some of which are quite dramatic, appear throughout, and the inclusion of accidents of nature...increase the book's appeal."
-- School Library Journal (April 2003)

Book Description
A grouping of massive stones rises from an English hillside, their origins and purpose shrouded in mystery. Popular lore has linked Stonehenge to the wizard Merlin, dark Druid rituals, and even flying saucers. What does modern science reveal about the secrets of the rocks? (

Avebury and Stonehenge: The Greatest Stone Circles in the World
by Mike Pitts
Digging Deeper (June 1, 2001)
ISBN: 0951407651

In this guide, Mike Pitts has assembled anecdotes, up to date information and a selection of poems. Inspire your memories! (



Hengeworld: Substantially Revised, Including the Latest on the Newly Discovered Stonehenge Skeleton
by Mike Pitts
Century, (22 June 2000)
Arrow, (2 August 2001)
Random House Uk Ltd (September 2001)
ISBN: 0099278758

This is a substantially revised edition of the 2000 hardback, including the full story of the decapitated man at Stonehenge. It begins with a new Preface, in which I outline the reasons why I think there should be a museum at Stonehenge.
Hengeworld is the most up to date general survey of Stonehenge and Avebury, full of new stories, information and ideas. 409 pages, with drawings, tables, photos, footnotes, bibliography, expanded index and 23 pages of radiocarbon dates (all right, you don’t have to read those, but if you are a student or an archaeologist, you might like to know they are the largest listing of Neolithic calibrated radiocarbon dates in print, including, of course, all the Stonehenge dates) (


by Julian Richards
Batsford (August 28, 2003)
ISBN: 0713488360

A new, revised, and illustrated edition of the comprehensive account of one of the world's most important prehistoric monuments: Stonehenge. Archeologist Julian Richards surveys the surviving structure and its landscape; describes the economy of Stonehenge's builders; and includes the latest research into its physical, cultural and spiritual significance. There's a look at previous enquiries and the evidence for their beliefs, an examination of Stonehenge's precursors, and fascinating information that allows us at last to get glimpses of what the people who created and used Stonehenge might have been like. (


Stonehenge: A History in Photographs
by Julian Richards
English Heritage 2004.
118 pages, over 100 photographs. ISBN 1 85074 895 0

Since the earliest days of the medium photographers have been drawn to the power and beauty of this mysterious and iconic landmark. The photographs they have taken have added to our knowledge and understanding of the site, as well as showing the changes in the surrounding landscape.

Renowned TV historian and Stonehenge expert Julian Richards traces the development of photography of Stonehenge, from the earliest known shot ( taken in 1853 and belonging to Prince Albert’s personal collection ) to modern day thermal imaging shots. He explains what they tell us about various excavations and discoveries and how these have contributed to our understanding of the site. But more than this the photographs give us a fascinating cultural history of Britain’s best known monument. From shots of Victorian ladies picnicking on the collapsed stones ( much of the site was reconstructed in the 1920,s) to shots of World War 1 bombers parked behind them (the RAF petitioned for the stones to be demolished in the First World War as they were distracting pilots from the nearby air base), to mass Druidic ceremonies in the 1920’s, the book gives a unique and intriguing picture to the ever changing nature of the site. At the same time the author uses remarkable aerial shots to explain the archaeology of the immense ceremonial landscape of the surrounding area.(

Stonehenge: The Story So Far
by Julian Richards
English Heritage (December 30, 2006)
ISBN-10: 190562400X
ISBN-13: 978-1905624003

kliknij by powiekszycStonehenge is, and always will be, not only the ultimate symbol of prehistoric achievement but one of the past's most enduring mysteries. In "Stonehenge: The Story So Far", Julian Richards - archaeologist, broadcaster and Stonehenge fanatic - takes a fresh and very personal look at his favourite ancient monument. After introducing Stonehenge and its surrounding ancient landscape, the first section outlines its history, from magic and Merlin to the obsessive diggers of the 19th century. The 20th century is a story of collapse and restoration, of changing ownership and conflict, of botched excavations and the final triumph of science in unlocking some of the stones' most closely guarded secrets. Science provides the answers to some of the big questions: when was Stonehenge built? Who built it and how? And, perhaps most difficult of all, why? The final section takes the reader back to the Age of Stonehenge, and using all of the accumulated evidence of centuries of exploration, tells the unfolding story of Britain's greatest prehistoric temple and its builders.

This book brings our understanding of Stonehenge into the 21st century, written with the authority that comes from 25 years of involvement with Stonehenge and a passion to share its wonders.(

The Amazing Pop-up Stonehenge
by Julian Richards
English Heritage (April 15, 2005)
ISBN: 1850749264


All the questions that you’ve always wanted to ask – and some of the answers. This will be out around Easter and is aimed at 6 – 8 year olds, although there should be something in it for all ages. Stonehenge pops up, there are stones to drag and lift, a skeleton to discover and the function of the stones is explained with a little help from some mobile sheep.
Brilliantly illustrated by Linda Birkinshaw, there are some events planned around the launch of this particular book. (

Who built Stonehenge? How and when was it built? And why? This book, aimed at the inquisitive child (and adult) looks at these questions and with the aid of innovative paper technology, attempts to answer them. Through the use of pop-ups the book shows how the massive stone blocks were transported and erected by our Neolithic ancestors. It also tries to explain what the site was used for and why our distant ancestors put so much effort into building it. Written by TV historian and Stonehenge expert Julian Richards, this unique book is an excellent starting point for anyone interested in this mysterious and magnificent monument. (

Exploring England's Heritage. Dorset to Gloucestershire.
by Martin Robertson
HMSO, London: 1992

clickStonehenge, Wiltshire
Neolithic, Bronze and Iron

On A344 by junction with A303,2 miles W of Amesbury

p.17 - 18
This is the premier megalithic monument of Europe and easily the most visited of all British prehistoric sites. The site evolved over a very long period to reach its final and most elaborate form, and then, on abandonment in the Roman period, fell into gradual decay and dismemberment.

The isolation of the site has to some extent protected the stones from removal and reuse, and their strange magical quality must have helped, but their very paganism led to deliberate destruction at the instigation of the Church. Damage in this way happened to a much greater extent at Avebury (1, W). The stones have also fallen naturally in the course of time but the present state of the monument is that of the 18th century, Professor Richard Atkinson having re-erected only one trilithon and a number of the other stones in 1957 to match its condition at that time.

It is necessary to consult the guidebook for the full details of the different phases of construction and the monument's subsequent history. In its final phase, the remains of which we see today, it consisted of a bank and ditch forming a circle about 110 m in diameter. An entrance on the north-east connects this with the Avenue within the banks of which the Hele Stone still stands. At the centre of the enclosure there stands the remains of a dressed sarsen stone peristyle about 30 m in diameter and nearly 5 m high, and within this is the blue stone circle. Inside the circle there is most of a horseshoe setting of sarsen trilithons, the largest of the five being 7 m high. Inside this again is a blue stone horseshoe. Near to the centre is the recumbent stone called the altar stone.

The seemingly miraculous carriage of the blue stones from West Wales, and of the transport and erection of the sarsens which, though admittedly local, are of enormous size, continues to fascinate visitors, as do the more difficult questions concerning its purpose, its possible use as an observatory, as a Druidic temple, or any connection it may have with ley lines and other aspects of mysticism. A connection with the summer and winter solstices seems certain.

Despite the crude surroundings and the vast numbers of visitors, Stonehenge in its landscape rises above it all. The monument is currently undergoing a complete reassessment of its setting and presentation, which can only improve on the present inadequate display. If you find it too small then you must go to Avebury. If you look upon Stonehenge as a sophisticated construction of the earliest people, you cannot help but wonder at it.


 Stonehenge: Mysteries of the Stones and the Landscape
David Souden
Collins & Brown in association with English Heritage 1997,
ISBN 1-85585 291 8


"One of the best general introductions to what Stonehenge is and the stages of its construction, Souden also covers the wealth of remains in the immediate area. Well illustrated with photographs and drawings with an easy writing style."
Richard Muthar (



Stonehenge Revealed
by David Souden
British Heritage Magazine, December/January, 1997/98

coverStonehenge Revealed provides the necessary context for really appreciating the jumble of stones littering Salisbury Plain, and it does so in several ways...these insights comprise a comprehensive but concise volume that should be a fun and informative read for everyone, and should help to kindle the imagination of everyone
The latest archaeological methods provide fascinating insights into the perplexing history of Stonehenge. Over 200 striking full-color photographs reveal the collection of stones from various perspectives, allowing readers to sense the mysterious aura that surrounds this place. Maps and charts. "Stonehenge Revealed provides the necessary context for really appreciating the jumble of stones littering Salisbury Plain, and it does so in several ways...these insights comprise a comprehensive but concise volume that should be a fun and informative read for everyone, and should help to kindle the imagination of everyone."
- British Heritage Magazine, December/January, 1997/98
Hardcover - 160 pages (November 1997)
0816037205 ; Dimensions (in inches): 0.75 x 11.20 x 8.48

Stonehenge, Today and Yesterday
by Frank Stevens
Kessinger Publishing; Reprint edition (May 31, 1942)
ISBN: 0766106160

kliknij by powiekszycForeword: The interest that has always attached itself to Stonehenge has, without doubt, been in a great measure due to the mystery as to the origin of this unique monument of bygone time. But the careful investigations carried out by the modern school of archæologists, as instanced in the work of General Pitt Rivers, Mr. Gowland, and others, every excavation being carried out with great care and scientific accuracy, have had good results; little by little the history of Stonehenge has been unravelled; a fact that Mr. Stevens has clearly demonstrated in the present volume. We now know how, when, and who, built this remarkable temple. One point, however, still remains a mystery, viz. whence the so-called foreign stones were obtained? Clearly, as geology shows, from no spot in Wiltshire.

Amongst the many rude stone circles scattered over Great Britain, Stonehenge is unique, in the fact of having its sarsen stones carefully though roughly worked; and also in the introduction of [vi]the horseshoe within the circles, in the design or plan of the building. As in the present day, our churches, in their design, symbolise the Cross, so we may fairly infer that the horseshoe at Stonehenge had its own special meaning, as it still has in the East.

I would advise all interested in the subject, after reading Mr. Stevens' lucid and comprehensive account, to visit this weird monument and judge for themselves; take Omar's sound advice, "To-day" view the "Dead Yesterday," wait not for the "Unborn To-morrow."


March 1, 1916.

Astronomical Considerations of the Stones of Stonehenge
by E. Herbert Stone
Kessinger Publishing (December 2005)
ISBN: 1425368042

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This 20 page article was extractd from the book: Stones of Stonehenge, by E. Herbert Stone.



Stones of Stonehenge
by E. Herbert Stone
Kessinger Publishing (January 2003)
ISBN: 0766136132

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Book Description
1924. A full description of the structure and of its outworks. Illustrated by numerous photographs, diagrams, and plans drawn to scale. Although numerous books have been written in recent times regarding Stonehenge, its history and mystical properties, this book is one of the most phenomenally orchestrated and illustrated ever seen. Chapters within include discussion relative to: general design and dimensions; the age of Stonehenge; origin and nature of the stones; quarrying and transport; dressing the stones; mode of erection; outworks of Stonehenge. An appendix contains five stories relating directly to Stonehenge.


Stonehenge City: A Reconstruction
by Leon Stover
McFarland & Company (August 29, 2003)
ISBN: 0786414693


Stonehenge, the megalithic monument in southern England that dates in its Bronze Age phase to 2000 B.C. (but with a history stretching back yet another thousand years to Neolithic times), attracts more than a million tourists a year, but is much more than a visible array of great standing stones. The entire region includes a vast cemetery and a number of other sites that indicate the remains of sizeable wooden buildings. Stonehenge was indeed its own city, the metropolitan center of a powerful kingdom heretofore unsuspected.
That city is reconstructed by the author from the archaeological evidence—royal palace, banquet hall and tomb, among other buildings. In passing, the author incisively demolishes the popular theory that Stonehenge served as a prehistoric astronomical observatory. He rather advances a political theory grounded in cultural continuities that carry forward into the early Iron Age, best documented in ancient Ireland. Here (apart from Homer) begins European literature, derived from oral traditions. The entire book is richly illustrated.

About the Author
Leon Stover, professor emeritus at the Illinois Institute of Technology, is the author of numerous landmarks of intellectual history. He is also the author of Science Fiction from Wells to Heinlein (2002) and the editor of the eight volume series The Annotated H.G. Wells. He lives in Chicago. (

Ley Lines. A Comprehensive Guide to Alignments
by Danny Sullivan
JUDY PIATKUS (Publishers) Ltd London 1999
ISBN: 0749920173

Providing an introduction to the phenomenon of the alignment of ancient sites, this text examines the discovery of ley lines in the 1920s by Alfred Watkins, and looks at the theories and developments. An illustrated directory of 50 leys helps the reader in identifying the lines. (

"A SUNRISE LINE An astronomical alignment at Stonehenge (OS 1:50,000 Landranger Sheet 184)
Perhaps the most famous of all ancient astronomical alignments is the summer solstice alignment at Stonehenge, Wiltshire. On the longest day of the year, viewed from the centre of the monument, the sun can be seen rising over the outlying Heel Stone between the massive uprights that form the central ring. The earth-banked Avenue that leads away from Stonehenge is aligned in the same direction for several hundred yards. The antiquary William Stukeley first noted this strange phenomenon in 1740 when he wrote that the axis of Stonehenge and the Avenue are directed to the north-east 'where abouts the sun rises when the days are longest'. In The Old Straight Track Alfred Watkins notes that the alignment passes through two Bronze Age barrows to the south-west of Stonehenge. Stukeley noted another barrow once visible on the skyline and lining up with the Avenue, marking the point on the horizon where the summer solstice sun would rise.

(...)Stonehenge is probably the most famous megalithic monument in the world; its form of construction is unique, its stones the biggest of any other circle in Britain. Another celebrated feature is the approximate alignment of the centre of the circle of stones, the outlying Heel Stone and earthen Avenue with the summer solstice sunrise. Though the astronomical aspects of Stonehenge were dramatically brought to public attention in 1963 by the astronomer Professor Gerald Hawkins it had always been a tradition amongst the people of nearby Amesbury to gather at the stones before dawn on Midsummer's Day to watch the sun rise over the Heel Stone. This particular ritual was later adopted by modern druid revivalists until the public disorder and subsequent police presence at the site in the 1980s put a stop to this regular spectacle. In recent years the Druids have been allowed back to Stonehenge on the summer solstice, although the general public is still excluded"

Arthur and Stonehenge: Britain's Lost History
by Emmet J. Sweeney
Domra Publications (1 Dec 2001)
ISBN-10: 0952441799
ISBN-13: 978-0952441793

Stonehenge is the most striking pre-Roman monument of western Europe. Yet it is commonly believed to have left no trace in the native traditions of Britain. Such a structure, we might imagine, could not have been ignored by the natives of the island. Nor was it. In fact, Stonehenge occupies a central position in British legend. It is none other than the Round Table of Arthur, and the entire Arthurian legend, commonly believed to derive from the post-Roman period, actually belongs in the prehistoric past. The Early Bronze people who raised Stonehenge derived their wealth from the bronze and tin trade centred in nearby Cornwall. It was these people who first mastered the art of sword-making and the bronze weapons which they manufactured were pulled, fully-formed, from a stone mould. This too became a central feature of the Arthur story. As for Arthur himself, he was the primitive bear-god "Artos", the Celtic version of Hercules. Originally portrayed with a bear-skin over his head and shoulders and carrying a great oaken club, he became the prototype of the Greek Hercules when Hellenic traders, braving the wild waters of the Atlantic in search of tin, heard his story from the Britons.

A unique visual record of Britain over the last 100 yers.
by Edmund Swinglehurst
Pyramid Books London 1988

Stonehenge, Wiltshire, 1887. The mysterious stone circles of Salisbury Plain have never been satisfactorily explained and continue to inspire wonder and amazement, even in our sceptical age In 1887 it was still possible to walk among the giant monoliths, but this is now prohibited .for fear of the damaqe done by a few of the thousands of visitors who come every year. Some of the giant stones were transported to Salisbury Plain from as far away as South Wales — one has recently been discovered at the bottom of the Bristol Channel; others came from the nearer Marlborough Downs.
I here is no doubt that the circles were a kind of temple and served a religion based on sun worship. Around the central stones is a circle of holes, now filled with concrete, in which other stones may have rested.


Mysterious Britain. Fact and Folklore.
by Homer Sykes
Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London: 1993

clickS T 0 N E H E N G E, Nr Amesbury, Wiltshire
Stonehenge is Britain's best known prehistoric monument. West of Amesbury on the busy A303, it attracts thousands of visitors each year. All come to marvel at this truly magnificent temple dedicated to the ancient gods. What many do not realize is that the Stonehenge we see today was built in three stages and took over 700 years to complete. Early mention of Stonehenge is made by the twelfth-century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth who claimed that it was brought by a tribe of giants from Africa to Ireland, and from there 'flown' by the wizard Merlin across the Irish Sea. Another legend is that the stones were stolen from an Irish woman by the Devil, and re-erected on Salisbury Plain by Merlin for Ambrosius Aurelianus, the King of the Britons. John Aubrey, the seventeenth-century archaeologist, claimed it to be the Temple of the Sun where Druids practised ritual magic and human sacrifice. Modern-day Druids only celebrate the rising of the midsummer sun at the site.


A Travel Guide to Scientific Sites of The British Isles
A Guide to the People, Places and Landmarks of Science

by Charles Tanford and Jacqueline Reynolds
John Wiley & Sons, 1995

STONEHENGE (near Amesbury/ Wiltshire)
Here we have Britain's most famous prehistoric monument, an enigma to some, a place of mythical significance to others, and (for the inquisitive) an object for speculation and research. In the realm of science there are three major questions.
(1) Who were the people who had the skill and determina-tion to build this complex structure? John Aubrey (around 1650) casually suggested the Druids, a Celtic priesthood who lived here in Roman times, but that is certainly wrong, for Stonehenge is much older than that - it was built in several stages, beginning about 3000 B.C.
(2) What was Stonehenge's function? The celebrated align-ment with the rising sun on midsummer day has led to spec-ulation about quite sophisticated astronomical knowledge and use of the stones for charting the movement of heavenly bodies. In fact, the alignment is probably fortu-itous and comparison with the design of other stone circles in Britain does not lend much support to the speculation. Which does not deny the likelihood that the structure, once built (for whatever principal ceremonial purpose), did indeed serve as a crude calendar, just as we might today use a tree in our garden to follow the progress of the sun's posi-tion through the seasons.
(3) Where did the stones come from? The outer circle, huge sarsen stones with horizontal lintels, has a local origin, but the next circle within consists of bluestones, which without question came from the Preseli Mountains in southwest Wales. Why did the Stonehengers go so far to get their rocks? What route did they take? How were they carried? Current research (see PRESELI, in Wales, p.266) suggests that men did not carry the stones at all, but that they were carried by the flowing glaciers of an early ice age and were lying about here, ready to use, when stone age people arrived on the scene.
Some of the myths can clearly be discounted; much of the mystery remains. Visitors who want to draw their own con-clusions are advised not to rely on Stonehenge alone, but to look also at the stone age circles in Avebury and (especial-ly) those farthest to the north, on the Scottish offshore islands.
Stonehenge stands right beside the A303, one of the major high-ways to the southwest. It is open to visitors all year, 9.30-6.30 (summer), 9.30-4 (winter). Phone Bristol (0117)-973-4472.

Treasures of Britain and Treasures of Ireland. A traveler's guide to the riches of Britain and Irleand.
Drive Publications Limited, London 1973

p. 443
Stonehenge Wilts. In Stonehenge, Britain possesses the finest Bronze Age sanctuary in Europe. The monument as we have it today (as it was when complete) was the last stage in a long and complex history which began c. 2150 BC, near the end of the Neolithic period, and was completed by c. 1250 BC, at the end of the Early Bronze Age. The phases of building are as follows: 
   Phase I, c. 2150 BC: Ditch and bank constructed, inside which was a ring of small pits, many con-taining cremation burials. A few upright stones were grouped to form an entrance. (The pits are now marked by concrete.) 
   Phase II, c. 1675 BC: A double circle of blue-stones, brought from the Prescelly Hills in Pem-brokeshire, was erected, but never finished. The entrance was modified to suit the new orientation and 'The Avenue', leading up from the banks of the R. Avon, was constructed. 
   Phase IlIa, c. 1650 BC : The bluestones were taken down, the site levelled and the great sarsen stones we still see were brought from the Marlborough Downs, shaped and dressed, and erected as we see them today, in an outer ring with lintels and an inner horseshoe composed of five pairs of uprights with lintels. The entrance was again modified. 
   Phase IIIb, c. 1450 BC: Some of the bluestones were dressed and set along the line of the present inner bluestone horseshoe. Further holes were dug outside the great circle but these were never used and the bluestones in the centre were removed. 
   Phase IIIc, c. 1250 BC : The bluestones were now reset as we see them, in a ring between the two lines of sarsens and in an inner horseshoe. Finally, at the very centre, the largest bluestone was apparently set upright. This has now fallen and is known as the Altar Stone. 
Most of the missing stones have disappeared from the Middle Ages onwards, as farmers and others once used the monument as a quarry. The dates shown for Phases I, II and IIIc are based on radiocarbon determinations from antler fragments found in various parts of the site, and the intermediate dates are estimated from those Phases. These dates are still under investigation.

The Henge Monuments: Ceremony and Society in Prehistoric Britain
by Geoffrey Wainwright, 
Thames & Hudson, 1989

Dr Wainwright excavated several of the henge monuments between 1966 and 1971 - to him is attributed the discovery that many of these once held massive wooden structures (derived from the post-holes left behind as the wood rotted away). These evocative structures help us place the stone circles in better context, and perhaps may explain some of the woodworking techniques (such as the mortice and tenon joints at Stonehenge) executed in stone at Stonehenge


Arthur C Clarke's Mysterious World
by Simon Welfare and John Fairley
Book Club Associates, London: 1980

kliknijCircles and Standing Stones, p.84The finds at Stonehenge bear out this view. There are antler picks used to dig the stone holes, mauls for dressing the stones, pieces of flint and axe, fragments of pottery from different periods, bone pins, and the occasional skeleton. But neither separately nor together do they tell us what went on there or what was in the minds of the people who placed or dropped them within the circle. This is all the more surprising since we know the site was used for about a thousand years. The only clue may lie in the very scarcity of the finds: there is no trace of 'litter' that you would expect to find where there had been houses and settlements. "It is as though the people who built the circles treated them like we treat church"(...)



Life Out There: The Truth Of - And Search For - Extraterrestrial Life
by Michael White
Warner Books A Division of Little, Brown and Company
Brettenham House Lancaster Place London 1999

A sweeping look at the many possible places we can search for signs of extraterrestrial life, from distant galaxies to our own back door. White (Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer, 1998, etc.) ventures first to the planet we all think of when casual conversation turns to extraterrestrials: Mars. He contrasts the recent discovery of primitive microorganisms on a Martian meteorite with the results of tests performed by the Viking spacecraft that landed on Mars in 1976. More important for the uninitiated, he gives detailed reasons why this rock is known to come from Mars and what evidence of ``life'' was found on it. He doesnt let the reader progress far before asking and answering the more fundamental question, What is life? White continues with a laundry list of every planet and moon in our solar system, examining if life could exist on each. He explains how planets circling other suns were not detected until this decade and that the search for radio signals from elsewhere in the galaxy is in its infancy too. Although travel to planets in other solar systems would take thousands of years using current technology, this in no way diminishes White's enthusiasm for the possibility of space travel using as-yet-theoretical means of propulsion. Once we get to other planets, what would life there look like? White emphasizes the similarities we would have with such life, arguing that life anywhere would use RNA, the same building blocks as on Earth. Life would also, he contends, require the existence of water, which may have been present on Mars in the distant past. Finally, theres the intriguing notion that life on Earth could actually have been ``seeded'' by microbes from another planet. Are we, in fact, all Martians? Abundantly optimistic. Covers the gamut of current scientific research on the possibility of life elsewhere in our solar system and beyond. (17 illustrations) -- Copyright ©1999, Kirkus Associates

"Theories concerning the use of the site and the way such an edifice could have been constructed by primitive tribespeople are varied and plentiful. Again, enthusiasts of the ancient-astronaut theory suggest that Stonehenge is one of many sites situated on ley lines - hypothetical lines of 'force' or natural energy which intersect at key points (such as Stonehenge). What these ley lines are actually for, or why they should be considered important, is still a mystery to the investigators of the occult. To the scientist they are little more than imaginary 'lines in the sand', and the grid-work of lines that may be drawn linking the various stone circles dotted around Europe signify precisely nothing.
Again, the key factor in the importance of Stonehenge for the alternative archaeologist is the notion that they could never have been built by primitive people some three millennia before Christ Yet, once again, conventional archaeology can offer a clear picture of how it was done. Several scholarly works have appeared in recent years describing in intricate detail the methods employed by the ancient Britons, and the techniques they employed using the materials readily available at that time."

A guide to the magical places of England, Wales & Scotland
by Guy Williams

Constable, London: 1997

coverp. 159 - 60

Stonehenge According to Geoffrey of Monmouth in his Histories of the Kings of Britain, compiled in the twelfth century, the great boulders that compose Stonehenge were found on a mountain in Ireland called 'Killaurus', having been carried there by giants 'from the furthest ends of Africa'. Merlin the magician knew all about them, Geoffrey claimed, and said of them:

... In these stones is a mystery . . . and a healing virtue
against many ailments . . . Not a stone is there that lacketh in
virtue of witchcraft . . .

It is known today that the stones were not brought from Ireland by Merlin with 'his own engines', or, as many Wiltshire people have believed, by the Devil, who - they like to think - carried them across the sea one by one in a single night. Scientists have shown that the big sarsen stones came, almost certainly, from the Marlborough Downs, not far away/ while the smaller 'blue' stones were brought from the Prescelly Mountains in South Wales, rafts and rollers being used for the movement of these considerable loads across water and land respectively.

The building of Stonehenge seems to have taken place in a number of distinct phases. In the first/ a bank and ditch were made round a circle of small pits, called now the 'Aubrey Holes' after the man who first made the world aware of them. At more or less the same time, the 'Heel Stone' which lies outside the circular embankment was incorporated into the complex. In the second phase of building, which began nearly four thousand years ago, the stone circles at the centre of the site were constructed. At more or less the same time, the processional route known as 'The Avenue', which leads from the River Avonto the great shrine/ was laid out. In the third and final phase, local sarsen stones were used for constructing the inner and outer setsof 'trilithons', which resemble great stone goalposts.

The purpose of Stonehenge remains obscure. Some say that it was primarily a temple, where priests used to practise ritual human sacrifice. Others say that it was regarded by the ancients as the door to the Underworld. Recent authorities have suggested that the stones may have been used to calculate the movements of the sun, the moon and other heavenly bodies. Whichever view is right, Stonehenge will continue to attract awed admirers into the foreseeable future.

From Atlantis to the Sphinx.
Recovering the lost wisdom of the ancient world

by Colin Wilson
Virgin Books London 1999


The author of numerous books with a New Age bent, including the best-selling The Outsider, Wilson here presents an unusual thesis: an ancient civilization, popularly called Atlantis, transmitted its advanced culture to other ancient civilizations before disappearing in a worldwide catastrophe. He examines antique maps, documents, archaeological records, and historical writings to "prove" that humankind is older than frequently supposed and that Atlanteans were the precursors of Egyptians, Aztecs, and Maya. Wilson also posits the existence of a collective human consciousness that permitted ancient peoples to work smoothly with other members of their groups. His most interesting (and believable) statement is that the Sphinx shows signs of water damage, an indication that it is much older than "experts" say. This volume, which bears comparison to John West's Serpent in the Sky (1979), presents its theories in a sober and readable manner. Suitable for public libraries.?Norman Malwitz, Queens Borough P.L., Jamaica, N.Y.
Copyright 1997 Reed Business Information, Inc.(

One of Thorn's most interesting followers, the Scottish academic Anne Macaulay, has followed in Thorn's foot steps with a theory that is just as controversial. In Science and Gods in Megalithic Britain, she starts from Thorn's assumption that the earliest geometry was a tradition which was not written down, and that it was connected with astronomy. She then asked herself how ancient astronomers could have stored their knowledge in the absence of phonetic writing (which was developed by the Greeks and Phoenicians after 2000 BC). Obviously, memory has to be the answer. But not memory in the sense we speak of it today. It is a little-known fact that the ancients had developed a complex art of memory, which they regarded as comparable to any of the other arts or sciences. The scholar Frances Yates has written about it in her book The Art of Memory (1966) and shows how we can trace it back to the ancient Greeks, and how it survived down to the time of Shakespeare. The art of memory did not simply depend on brain power, but upon a complicated series of mnemonics (devices for helping us remember, like 'roygbiv' for the colours of the rainbow). Anne Macaulay's suggestion is that the phonetic alphabet was created as a series of mnemonics to record positions of the polar stars, and that the word 'Apollo' - the god of music - was one of these basic mnemonics. The letters, from A to U, were created as mnemonics for certain geometric theorems or figures, with which numbers were associated. (In fact, Anne Macaulay's starting point was her study of the ancient Greek musicalscale.)
Her theory of ancient history, and the geometry of megalithic circles, is too complicated to detail here. But she reaches one thought-provoking conclusion: that when this 'code' is used to encapsulate the extreme southerly rising of the moon, the ideal spot to build an observatory is precisely where Stonehenge is placed. Another is that all this indicates that ancient Greek science - including Pythagoras (who was bom about 540 BC) - probably originated in Europe - the exact reverse of a suggestion made in the nineteenth century that Stonehenge was built by Mycenaean Greeks. She suggests that the early Greeks may have been British tin traders from Cornwall.
Since we know that the construction of Stonehenge began about 3100 BC, her theory also implies that phonetic writing is about fifteen hundred years older than we at present assume.

Stonehenge In Symbolic Mythology
by John Martin Woolsey
Kessinger Publishing
ISBN: 1425392288

kliknij by powiekszyc


This 6 page article was extractd from the book: Symbolic Mythology and Translation of a Lost and Forgotten Language, by John Martin Woolsey.



Symbolic Mythology and Translation of a Lost and Forgotten Language
by John Martin Woolsey
Kessinger Publishing (March 1997)
ISBN: 1564594165

kliknij by powiekszyc


Contents: The Typical Resemblance and the Analysis of Symbolism and Disguise; The Raven; Lion; Ring; The Philosopher's Stone; Stones; Prometheus; Grail; Boar; Shoe; Jason and the Arkite; Word, Language, and Letters; Interpretation of Symbols; Names; Runes; Ears of the Ass; Bull Worship; Cosmogony; Moon as a Horse; Vehicles and Chariots of the Gods; Dogs; Hindu Vedic.


Stonehenge: Celebration and Subversion
by Andy Worthington
Alternative Albion, an imprint of Heart of Albion Press (1. June 2004.)
ISBN 1 872883 76


This innovative social history looks in detail at how the summer solstice celebrations at Stonehenge have brought together different aspects of British counter-culture to make the monument a 'living temple' and an icon of alternative Britain. The history of the celebrants and counter-cultural leaders is interwoven with the viewpoints of the land-owners, custodians and archaeologists who have generally attempted to impose order on the shifting patterns of these modern-day mythologies.

The story of the Stonehenge summer solstice celebrations begins with the Druid revival of the 18th century and the earliest public gatherings of the 19th and early 20th centuries. In the social upheavals of the 1960s and early 70s, these trailblazers were superseded by the Stonehenge Free Festival. This evolved from a small gathering to an anarchic free state the size of a small city, before its brutal suppression at the Battle of the Beanfield in 1985.

In the aftermath of the Beanfield, the author examines how the political and spiritual aspirations of the free festivals evolved into both the rave scene and the road protest movement, and how the prevailing trends in the counter-culture provided a fertile breeding ground for the development of new Druid groups, the growth of paganism in general, and the adoption of other sacred sites, in particular Stonehenge's gargantuan neighbour at Avebury.

The account is brought up to date with the reopening of Stonehenge on the summer solstice in 2000, the unprecedented crowds drawn by the new access arrangements, and the latest source of conflict, centred on a bitterly-contested road improvement scheme. (Alternative Albion Press)

Sacred Sites Of The Knights Templar: The Ancient-Secrets Hidden In Stonehenge, Rennes-Le-Chateau, And Santiago De Compostela
by John K., Ph.D. Young
Fair Winds Press (MA) (March 31, 2005)
ISBN: 1592331408


All across the continent of Europe, massive stone monuments erected by a prehistoric culture can be found. These megalithic stones, resisting centuries of weathering or assaults by modern men, are all that remain of a society that has been erased by time. Stonehenge is the most familiar of these megalithic monuments, but in fact represents only one of many similar sites. Who were the people who built these monuments? Why were these stones significant to them?
Sacred Sites of the Knights Templar examines sacred megalithic sites across the globe, such as Stonehenge and Rennes-le-Chateauórevealing the astronomical significance of these sites as well as the secrets that significance bore to the Knights Templar.

This revolutionary book offers a new explanation for two main subjects:

The distribution and meaning of the megalithic monuments of Europe, which were constructed to commemorate astronomical events
Evidence for a continuing and hidden philosophy based on ancient astronomy maintained in secret by the Knights Templar and in turn by the Freemasons.
The author offers theories regarding these sites, their meanings, their secrets, their lasting impression on the Western World, and their sacred symbolic influences on Freemasonry throughout history.

About the Author
John K Young, Ph.D, is a professor at Howard University in Washington, D.C. (

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