Galeria 1




Najnowsza historia Stonehenge

wstecz dalej

Gods of the New Millennium : Scientific Proof of Flesh & Blood Gods
by Alan F. Alford
Arnold Publishers; New Ed edition (June 1, 1999)
ISBN: 0340696133


On Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England, 80 miles south-west of London, stands another calendrical computing machine, this time made of stone. I am referring to the most famous prehistoric monument in the whole of Europe, and possibly the
world - Stonehenge.
Centuries of study have been unable to solve the mystery of who built Stonehenge and why, but modern science has been able to lift the veil on many of its secrets. It is now generally accepted that, from its beginning, Stonehenge was an astronomical observatory, aligned exactly to the standstill points of the Sun and the Moon. Radiocarbon datings long ago confirmed that the original site was around 4,800 years old. This amazing date was initially regarded with ridicule, since according to the historical paradigm, no-one in England at that time had the expertise to design or build it.

(...)Who was the mastermind behind the ingenious selection of Machu Picchu as a stellar observatory? As stated earlier, the only comparable construction was at Stonehenge, which I have concluded was designed by the god Thoth. A clue to Thoth's involvement at Machu Picchu has indeed been found in the Principal Temple, where archaeologists uncovered 56 vessels along with a mysterious layer of fine white sand.47 The number 56 signifies three lunar cycles, in a similar manner to the 56 Aubrey holes at Stonehenge. It is thus highly likely that the vessels and sand were used in the measurement of a lunar calendar, with which Thoth was closely associated.
One ancient Egyptian text states that, following his dispute with Marduk/Ra, Thoth left Stonehenge for a distant land, referred to as Hau-nebut.  Could this destination have been Machu Picchu? The date at which Thoth left Stonehenge is likely to have coincided with the earliest ditch phase, which archaeologists have dated to c. 2965 BC. Amazingly, we find that the pre-Incan traditions recorded by the Spanish historian Montesinos place the beginning of the Andean calendar at an
almost identical date of 2900 BC.491 suggest that this is not a coincidence.


Ancient Monuments & Historical Sites
Brockhampton Reference
Brockhampton Press, London 1997 ISBN 1 86019 725 6

p 165
Stonehenge (near Amesbury, Wiltshire) The great and ancient stone circle here is one of Britain's most famous historic sites and is considered to be one of the wonders of the world. The massive stones that remain today are only part of the original prehistoric complex. Some of the cer-emonial and domestic structures that have been found in the surrounding landscape are thought to be older than the monu-ment itself. The construction of Stonhenge is thought to havetaken place in various stages between 3000 BC and 1600 BC. In about 3000 BC, the outer circular bank and ditch were con-structed and the massive Heel Stone was placed at the en-trance to the central enclosure. Just inside the ditch, a ring of 56 pits was dug, now known as Aubrey Holes. These pits were later filled with human ashes and dirt. Around 2100 BC, the first stone circle was raised within the earthworks, consisting of 80 great blocks of bluestone, weighing up to 40 tonnes each, cut from quarries in Wales and somehow transported to this site. In 1500 BC, the incomplete bluestone circle was trans-formed by the construction of 25 trilithons (two upright stones crossed by a lintel) and an inner horseshoe formation of 5 trilithons. Made from Marlborough Downs sandstone, these huge stones were masterfully dressed and worked. A further small circle and horseshoe were erected within the trilithons.

No one is entirely sure what purpose Stonehenge served. It is known that it served as a focal point for thousands of years within a ceremonial landscape. The most popular theory is that it was a time-measuring device or an observatory of some sort. This theory is supported by the fact that the structures were all built in alignment towards the points of sunrise and sunset on the summer and winter soltices and that the site is symmetrical and located on a slight rise in a flat valley.
Stonhenge is testament to the ingenuity and resourcefulness of its builders. They managed to create this amazing monu-ment with the most basic of tools. The society that was able to command the amount of labour to design and construct this structure must have been very sophisticated indeed. It is not known how the builders managed to transport the huge stones that they used to create this monument, but it is certain that it required huge effort to move, shape and raise them.

At this site it is also possible to see evidence of burial mounds that are thought to contain the graves of ruling fami-lies, the long barrows of the New Stone Age and the various types of barrows that followed. There are also visible remains of earthworks and monuments, including the long, oval earth-work to the north, the Cursus.


Mythology of The British Isles
by Geofrey Ashe
Methuen London 1992


In the far-off times before the Trojans, when the giants came from Africa, they settled in Ireland as well as Albion's isle. The finest monument of their whole race was the work of its Irish branch. These had brought with them a cargo of immense, long-shaped African stones, which they stood upright in a circle on a hill in County Kildarc. The stones had healing properties. A giant who fell sick was placed in a bath below the stone appropriate to the ailment, and water was poured over it, running down into the bath. The stone's magical virtue, plus herbal infusions, often effected a cure. When the giants were extinct, ordinary-sized Irish called the structure the 'Giants' Round-Dance' or 'Ring', a name preserved in Latin as Chorea Gigantum. They treated the stones with religious reverence. The Ring stood on its hill until the fifth century AD, when the enchanter Merlin moved it to Britain and planted it on Salisbury Plain, to mark the grave of some British nobles who had been massacred by Saxons. Later again it received a new name in English, by which it is known to this day: Stonehenge.
According to the best report. Merlin used his arts only to dismantle the circle and re-erect it. The stones were conveyed from Ireland to Britain by ship. But some who prefer a more spectacular tale assert that he employed the Devil. At that time, the land in Ireland where the Ring stood belonged to an old woman, who had enclosed it as part other extensive garden. The Devil visited her in the guise of a gentleman, and poured out a heap of coins of strange denominations - four-and-a-half pence, nine pence, thirteen pence. He told her that he wanted the stones, and she could have as much money as she could count while he removed them. She agreed, assuming that the operation would take a long time and she would do well out of it. However, he quickly bound the stones in a willow withy and flew to Salisbury Plain, delivering the bundle to Merlin complete, except for a small  one which had worked loose and fallen in the Avon near Bulford. (To judge from the map, the Devil must have been circling to land.) Many, however, have dismissed Merlin and attributed Stonchengc to the Druids, the priesthood recorded among the Britons by Caesar and others, with their occult powers, their wild sanctuaries and sacred groves, their rumoured human sacrifices. A stone that lies on the ground inside the Ring is, they contend, a druidic altar. There are those who claim that the Greeks demonstrably knew of Stonchenge at a time when the Druids flourished.
3 They cite Hecataeus of Abdera, in the fourth century BC. He writes of a large island north of Gaul, inhabited by a nation whom he calls Hyper- boreans. Their chief god is Apollo, and every nineteen years, when the heavens are in a certain position, the god visits the island and plays on a harp, an instrument popular with his worshippers. They have a city sacred to him, and a 'remarkable round temple'. Britain? Stonehenge? It is said that the stones cannot be counted.
4 Stonehenge is a composite, created in stages over a long period. Its English name is related to the Anglo-Saxon word hengen, which meant 'hanging' or 'gibbet'. The reference is to the cross-pieces on top of the larger uprights, either
because these stones were 'hung' there or because, with the uprights, they give the impression of a group of colossal gibbets. Much of the monument has gone, but the essential plan remains. Sited in a part of Britain that was once populous and advanced, as shown by barrows, artefacts, and other evidence, it began as a circular enclosure about 300 feet across. The boundary was a bank of chalk rubble which is still there, though lower than it once was. This enclosure, in archaeologists' parlance, was Stonehenge I. After a lengthy interval, a double ring of standing 'bluestones' was arranged within it, constituting Stonehenge II. Next, probably not long after, this was dismantled and replaced by the huge system of uprights and cross-pieces - Stonehenge Ilia. Lastly, some of the discarded bluestones were set up again inside, in two phases, labelled IIIb and IIIc. The 'altar stone' may be a fallen pillar.
5 The big stones weigh twenty-five to fifty tons and are known as sarsens, a word derived, cryptically, from 'Saracen'. They are blocks of natural sandstone, extremely hard. Quarried twenty miles away on the Marlborough Downs, and transported on rollers, they were artificially smoothed and shaped, a very slow, laborious process with the stone tools available. The cross-pieces or lintels, which weigh about seven tons, have sockets on the underside fitting on to knobs on top of the uprights.
So striking is the architectural effect, unparalleled in the megalithic world, that it has prompted suggestions of outside influence. For some years, Stonehenge Ilia was dated 1600-1500 BC, allowing the conjecture that it was designed by someone familiar with Mycenae in Greece, where very large stones were used in sophisticated buildings. However, a revision ofcarbon-datings by 6 Colin Renfrew pushed it back several centuries. The main phase of construction, producing II and Ilia, is now thought to lie between 2150 and 2000 BC, i.e. before Mycenae. Since it does not look residential, Stonehenge has usually been explained either as a memorial over a burial site - Geoffrey of Monmouth's idea in the Merlin story - or as a temple of Neolithic religion. While the second view has prevailed, direct evidence is scanty. There are no grounds for the name given to the altar stone. Just inside the bank forming the perimeter are fifty-six pits, called Aubrey Holes after John Aubrey, who discovered them in the seventeenth century. Some, when excavated, were found to contain cremated human bones, but it cannot be inferred that these were remains of sacrifices. Stonehenge II and III seem to be oriented towards the place where the sun rises at the summer solstice. For practical purposes, that is all.
7 The much-favoured theory about the Druids will be discussed in its place. A myth in its own right, it originated with Aubrey and William Stukeley. The short refutation is that we have no evidence which would put the Druids anything like early enough. While they may have been spiritual descendants of an older, pre-Celtic priesthood, it would be misleading to stretch the meaning of 'Druid' a long way backwards in time. If Hecataeus's round temple were proved to be Stonehenge, that could suggest that Druids at least made use of it, because he writes in a period when they probably did exist. Despite many purely mythical details his island is certainly Britain, and by 'Hyperboreans' he means Britons. The Hyperboreans, dwellers-at-the-back-of-the-North-Wind, were a semi-mythical people whose real home (so far as they had one) was in Asia; but Greek speculation shifted them westwards, confused them with the Celts, and 8 even toyed with a notion that the Druids were Hyperborean sages. Also, the nineteen-year cycle agrees with what is known of the druidic calendar. The problem, however, is with the round temple itself rather than the Druids. While the mention of Apollo seems to link up with Stonehenge's solar aspect, this is a false clue. Apollo was not originally a sun-god, or widely viewed thus till very late. A Greek in Hecataeus's time would not have identified him with a foreign solar deity. He is brought in because he was supposed to have a special relation with the Hyperboreans. One Celtic god did come to be counted as a British Apollo, but he had nothing to do with the sun. He was Maponus, the 9 'Divine Youth', who eventually passed into Welsh legend as the hero Mabon. Maponus was a musician. An altar at Hexham equates him with 'Apollo the Harper', and the harp-playing of Hecataeus's 'Apollo' indicates that the god he is thinking of may be Maponus... for whose cult, however, there is no evidence at or near Stonehenge. A worse obstacle is that the word here translated 'round', sphairoeides, means 10 'spherical'; not 'circular' in two dimensions. Since the Britons did not have the technology for a spherical building, the temple must, on the face of it, be fictitious. The only way to give it even a potential reality would be to find another word that might have become sphairoeides through textual corruption.
A credible candidate is speiroeides. In Greek the difference is of two letters only. It means 'spiral' and could suggest a ritual labyrinth. In one or two places Apollo is 11 associated with such a labyrinth, and its pattern occurs in Britain as a rock carving and a turf maze. But even if this idea were accepted, a spiral sanctuary could not be Stonehenge.
The Merlin story, as told by Geoffrey (its satanic variant is due to John Wood in the eighteenth century), is more fantastic than the druidic theory yet, oddly, more interesting. While Merlin's floruit is obviously too late, the previous pseudo-history of the stones and giants shows a vague awareness of megalithic fact. Britain's reputed primeval style, Myrddin's Precinct, may point to some god or demigod in remote antiquity, retrospectively named by the Welsh. Such a being might have been Stonehenge's mythical builder, and the feat might have been ascribed to the enchanter because, doubtless for a magical or religious reason, he bore the same name. He is 'Myrddin' in Welsh. The literary form 'Merlin' is an adaptation. This too would be merely a fancy if it were not that the Merlin episode apparently preserves factual tradition, not only about the spread of megaliths, but, specifically, about Stonehenge. Geoffrey portrays the stones as being brought by sea from the west. Wildly improbable as his story sounds, the 12 bluestones did at least travel from the west. Geology discloses a region of origin in the Prescelly Mountains in Dyfed. They could have been transported up the Bristol Channel on rafts, and then perhaps up the Bristol Avon. This explanation has been disputed, but is upheld by Renfrew and other authorities. For some reason the Prescelly area was sacred, and stones from there embodied a vital magic. There are Welsh bluestones at Boles Barrow, which is 13 earlier than Stonehenge. The 'altar stone' is likewise from Wales, probably from near Milford Haven. On past assumptions about the Celtic Britons, implying displacements of population and cultural breaks, it might sound unlikely that a tradition could have been handed down so long, to re-surface in Geoffrey's book three thousand years later. But, as remarked, there was probably much more continuity than past prehistorians would have allowed. Stonehenge's specific purpose must be acknowledged as still obscure. The implication of sun-worship raises the issue of a cult of other celestial bodies. But Gerald Hawkins's view, that the entire structure is a kind of computer for 14 predicting such phenomena as eclipses, stretches the conception so far that it has failed to convince. The enthusiasms of so-called hippies, as exhibited during the 1980s, were grounded more on feelings than on any precise interpretation. Renfrew stresses the importance of Wiltshire and neighbouring areas in the third millennium BC, as having the potential in organisation and labour for such a vast work. Stonehenge would have been a sacred capital. That, however, still says nothing about what happened there.
15 The legend that the stones cannot be counted is part of the general sense of mystery. Sir Philip Sidney mentions it in a poem. The diarist John Evelyn, and Jonathan Swift, both tried with different results. Defoe tells of a baker who arrived with a cartload of loaves, and placed a loaf on each stone as he counted it. Alas, he was a meticulous man and checked his figure by making the count again, and again . . . and each attempt contradicted the last. H. G. Wells glances at the impossibility in a short story. The Door in the Wall. Most of the early would-be reckoners ended up with a figure in the low nineties. They were not far out, and the discrepancies were due chiefly to uncertainty over what to count as a stone. Stonehenge, druidically viewed, plays a conspicuous role in the imaginings of William Blake. Thomas Hardy and other authors have touched on it. Byron in Don Juan (XI.25) is the most succinct, and as much to the point as any of them: The Druid's groves are gone — so much the better. Stonehenge is not, but what the devil is it?

Stonehenge and neighbouring monuments
by RJC Atkinson
English Heritage, 1987 rep 1993, ISBN 1 85074 172 7

You can't beat this English Heritage guidebook which is available from the Stonehenge shop for value, and as a quick introduction to the essential points of Stonehenge the easily readable text and excellent illustrations this is a must-have for the visitor to the site.
It really is best to have got it and at least glance through it before you visit Stonehenge - so much more of what you see will make sense in the light of the knowledge. Tragically the shop on site is arranged so that most people will check it out after they have seen the Stones.
The late Professor Atkinson was closely involved with Stonehenge and contributed greatly to what is known about the monument as a result of his careful fieldwork and study spanning many years, and thorough knowledge of prior work. (Richard Muthar - Megalithia)

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Merlin Built Stonehenge
by Bruce Bedlam
StonehengeLimitedpublishers (9 May 2005)
ISBN-10: 0954991605
ISBN-13: 978-0954991609

kliknij by powiekszycThe book (Merlin Built Stonehenge) is a novel with fictional characters and the backdrop is about Stonehenge. Why was it built? Who designed it? How did they move those enormous stones? These questions have been asked for centuries – but what if you could know the answers…
Join me on a journey that goes back in time and see how our ancestors worked together in unity and spirituality to create this wonderful Monument. It was for a reason; it was structural and had a purpose. You will see that Stonehenge is more important than anyone ever thought possible.

Book Foreword:
Some readers may think that it is historically inconsistent to link the time of Stonehenge with that of Merlin. The great stone temple was built around 2000 BC, whereas the Arthurian Romances, in which Merlin plays a key role, are set in medieval times, so how can the latter have built the former?
There is an explanation! Stories of Arthur and Merlin were first recorded in Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Histories of the Kings of Britain in 1138, and soon afterwards, on the orders of Henry II, re-told by a cleric called Wace in the form of a novel titled Roman de Brut. Wace even included in his manuscript an illuminated miniature showing Merlin directing the building of Stonehenge. These stories became very popular, especially in 12th Century France, where they were transformed into the Arthurian Romances by skilled storytellers, such as Marie de France, and the poet Chretien de Troyes.
These tales and romances have coloured our view of Arthur and Merlin to this day, so we tend to see them as medieval figures. Neither the French romancers, nor the historical chroniclers of Henry II’s time, were the first to relate the deeds of Arthur and Merlin. In fact, the origins of these stories lie deep in Celtic Legend.

Stonehenge : Making Space (Materializing Culture)
by Barbara Bender
Berg Publishers (August 1, 1999)
ISBN: 1859739083

coverThis book is an imaginative exploration of a place that has fascinated, intrigued and perplexed visitors for centuries. Instead of seeing Stonehenge as an isolated site, the author sets the stones within a wider landscape and explores how use and meaning have changed from prehistoric times right through to the present.
Throughout the millennia, the Stonehenge landscape has been used and re-used, invested with new meanings, and has given rise to myths and stories. The author creatively explores how the landscape has been appropriated and contested, and invokes the debates and experiences of people who have very different and often conflicting experiences of the same place. Today, heritage managers, archaeologists, local people, free festivallers, and druids come to the place with entirely different understandings and agendas. The book demonstrates that the creation of spaces and places for people to express divergent viewpoints is powerfully constrained by social and political forces that allow some voices to be heard while others are marginalized. With dialogues and illustrations that range from the conventional to the cartoon strip, this multi-vocal book not only presents a wide range of views in an innovative way, but provides important new insights on how people shape and are shaped by landscape. (

King Arthur. Chivalry and Legend
by Anne Berthelot
Thames and Hudson London 1997
ISBN: 0500300798

"The stone circle at Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain is one of the great mysteries of the Neolithic age.
It was almost certainly an astronomical and religious complex where the movement of the stars could be observed and plotted according to sophisticated calculations, which in turn probably determined the course of liturgical rites of which we know nothing today. From its earliest mention in the Arthurian legend Stonehenge was associated with the monument erected by Merlin in memory of Pendragon, brother of Uther Pendragon, Arthur's father."

The legend of King Arthur is one of our great national myths. This book explores the reasons for his enduring appeal, tracing the revival of interest in the 19th century and new approaches in modern fiction and film.A text which explores the reasons and the history of why the legend of King Arthur still continues to appeal, including new approaches in modern fiction and film. If Arthur had existed, he would have lived in the Dark Ages and by the 12th century he was already a national myth.(

The Age of Stonehenge
by Colin Burgess 
Phoenix Press, WC2 August 2001 ISBN: 1842124323

coverFrom the Publisher
Colin Burgess brings to life the history of Britain and Ireland between 3000 and 1000 BC. Departing from the traditional Stone, Bronze and Iron terminology, he provides a coherent slice of pre-history in a fresh and accessible way. We get to see and understand the physical characteristics and appearance of the people, their fashions in clothing, ornaments, equipment and weapons, in arts and crafts. He looks at population levels and social and political organization and reveals that these people of over 4000 years ago were much more numerous, organized and technologically skilled than we have been led to think. The range of topics covered is encyclopaedic, from early farming techniques to the nature of the houses and struggles with the soil and climate to disease, surgery and boat construction. Illustrated with drawings, plans, maps and photographs, this is the first book to deal with all aspects of this crucial period of pre-history. Includes a new preface by the author.


A Guide to the Stone Circles of Britain, Ireland and Brittany
by Aubrey Burl
Paperback (June 1995) 
Yale Univ Pr; ISBN: 0300063318 

kliknijThis practical and knowledgeable guidebook is the first to deal comprehensively with the stone circles of Britain and Ireland and with the cromlechs and megalithic "horseshoes" of Brittany. Filled with fascinating information, useful maps, and arresting photographs, this invaluable resource describes over 400 sites and discusses the archaeology and architectural features of each ring. 

"Burl, an expert on the subject of stone circles, has created an essential and portable guide to all of the major sites in Great Britain and Brittany. The sites listed in the book are numbered and keyed to useful maps which offers visitors to a given area the opportunity to avoid missing anything of interest. Each site has a thorough description which often includes interpretations, a "condition code", and practical instructions as to how to find it. Also included is a good index and bibliography, and, for most sites, reference to published literature. This is not a book of photographs or site maps, although there are quite a few of each, especially for the better sites. Rather, this is an exceptional and really practical little guidebook, one anyone headed for the field will certainly want to carry along.'

In this book, Aubrey Burl gives the reader a general overview of megalithic stone monuments in the British Isles without all the supernatural or alien theories. His theories are firmly rooted in the earth, just like the stones. 
The book includes a discussion of size, number of stones, avenues, sites and geographical relationships. It also includes a detailed appendix of all known circles and four-posters with landranger map coordinates, condition and survey details. An excellent guide to those who wish to explore and create their own theories.


 Circles of Stone : The Prehistoric Rings of Britain & Ireland
by Aubrey Burl
Harvill Press ; November 1999, ISBN: 1860466613 
Photographs by Max Milligan Text  

kliknij by powiększyćCategorised by the publisher as archaeology-history-photography, Circles of Stone does indeed straddle all these subjects. The volume is in itself a work of art, a stimulating introduction to a fascinating aspect of prehistory and a useful work of reference for anyone with an interest in ancient monuments. Fabulous photographs of 70 stone circles from all over the British Isles are accompanied by a factually rich text. The author, an established authority on prehistoric megaliths, gives an interesting impression of how the stones have been variously used and perceived through their long histories. While allowing legend a voice, this text is not the place to find detailed speculation on prehistoric rites or ancient astronomy: its scope is more pragmatic and it includes details of the form and location of each monument and other interesting sites. Chronologically arranged, the selection begins with the circles of the Late Neolithic and ends in the Middle Bronze Age, showing a great variety of form over 2,000 years. There is variety, too, in the photographic views, from panoramas to zoomed-in textural detail. The photographs themselves are dramatic. Taken in many different light conditions, they often capture the stones at their most evocative moments, showing how the illumination of the sun and moon and the form of the surrounding landscape is a vital part of their aura--just as was the case in prehistory. Karen Tiley,


From Carnac to Callanish : The Prehistoric Stone Rows and Avenues of Britain, Ireland and Brittany
by Aubrey Burl 
Yale University Press 1993, ISBN: 0300055757



This is the ultimate book about stone rows. It gives an enormous number of facts about them. A no-nonsense scientific hypothesis is given as to what purpose these rows were made and into what categories they can be divided. But it has been written in a very entertaining way, lots of legends are mentioned as well. Joost van den Buijs



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Great Stone Circles: Fables, Fictions, Facts
by Aubrey Burl
Yale University Press (2 Mar 1999)

kliknij by powiekszycThousands of years ago, people in Britain painstakingly arranged huge blocks of stone into careful circles. The most famous of these rings is Stonehenge, but elsewhere in England there are remains of other awe-inspiring prehistoric stone circles as well. For those who are enthralled by these enigmatic rings, this book offers fascinating explanations of their many mysteries. Archaeologist Aubrey Burl, for more than thirty years a specialist in the study of stone circles, selects a dozen attractive and evocative rings to illuminate particular archaeological questions—the purpose of stone circles, their construction, age, design, distribution, art, legends, and relation to astronomy.

Burl investigates the legends that surround the Rollright Stones of Oxfordshire, for example, and finds that stories of girls turning to stone and of stones going for a midnight drink in the river are mainly fables of the eighteenth century or later. At Stanton Drew near Bristol, three rings provide a vivid example of prehistoric landscaping. Burl offers sometimes surprising answers to questions about Stonehenge: how were its bluestones transported from southwest Wales, why was its Slaughter Stone not used for sacrifice, and why is Stonehenge—the most British of stone circles—not a stone circle and not British? Burl concludes by reconstructing the social history of Swinside in the Lake District, describing the builders, their way of life, and the ceremonies they performed inside their lovely ring.

Aubrey Burl was formerly Principal Lecturer in Archaeology, Hull College of Higher Education, East Riding of Yorkshire.

by Aubrey Burl
Constable and Robinson (27 Sep 2006)
ISBN-13: 978-1411996418

kliknij by powiekszycBritain's leading expert on stone circles turns his attention to the greatest example of them all - Stonehenge. Drawing on forty years of research and fieldwork, archaeologist Aubrey Burl offers a seminal new view of the changing cults and evolving architecture of Stonehenge. Every aspect of Stonehenge is re-considered in this groundbreaking volume. Burl explains for the first time how the outlying Heel Stone long predates Stonehenge itself, serving as a trackway marker in the prehistoric Harroway. He uncovers new evidence that the Welsh bluestones were brought to Stonehenge by glaciation rather than by man. And he reveals just how far the design of Stonehenge was influenced by Breton styles and by Breton cults of the dead. Meticulously researched, the book sets the record straight on the matter of Stonehenge's astronomical alignments. Although the existence of a sightline to the midsummer sunrise is well known, the alignment and the viewing-position are critically different from popular belief. And until now the existence of an earlier alignment to the moon and a later one to the midwinter sunset has been little appreciated. One almost unexplained puzzle remains. The site of Stonehenge lies at the heart of a vast six-mile wide graveyard. All around it are groups of earthen long barrows, the burial places of Neolithic people, many of whom died more than a thousand years before Stonehenge. The mystery is that before Stonehenge there was a vacuum two miles across inside that cemetery. Nothing was inside. Why? Burl points to an answer.

The Stone Circles of the British Isles
by Aubrey Burl
Yale University Press 1976, ISBN 0-300-02398-7

Readable and detailed treatise on the subject of stone circles, and a standard work. It isn't designed as a gazetteer - the way he hops around the British Isles can be distracting in the field If it is understanding and comparison of the different constructional styles you can't beat this one for the depth of his analysis while staying sensitive to the subject. (Richard Muthar - Megalithia)
In this book, Aubrey Burl gives the reader a general overview of megalithic stone monuments in the British Isles without all the supernatural or alien theories. His theories are firmly rooted in the earth, just like the stones.
The book includes a discussion of size, number of stones, avenues, sites and geographical relationships. It also includes a detailed appendix of all known circles and four-posters with landranger map coordinates, condition and survey details. An excellent guide to those who wish to explore and create their own theories.


Stukeley's 'Stonehenge': An Unpublished Manuscript, 1721-1724
by Aubrey Burl (editor) and Neil Mortimer (editor)
Yale University Press (27 May 2005)
ISBN-10: 0300098952
ISBN-13: 978-0300098952

click!William Stukeley (1667-1765), one of the first to conduct fieldwork at Stonehenge and to recognize its historic importance, meticulously recorded his findings in a manuscript that has remained unpublished for hundreds of years. That manuscript is transcribed here, accompanied by detailed annotations that confirm the value of Stukeley's archaeological research and set it apart from his later unsustainable theories and obsessions with Druids.

Trained as a medical doctor, Stukeley's interests were antiquarian and archaeological, with a particular enthusiasm for evidence of early sacred ritual. His Stonehenge field notes include careful measurements, drawings, and plans as well as original analyses and remarkable discoveries, among them the enigmatic cursus which no one before him had seen. Stukeley's manuscript provides a fascinating review of what could be said of the stone circle and its landscape in the early eighteenth century.

Aubrey Burl was principal lecturer in archaeology, Hull College of Higher Education, East Riding of Yorkshire. His many books on stone circles include Prehistoric Avebury and A Guide to the Stone Circles of Britain, Ireland, and Brittany, published by Yale University Press.

Neil Mortimer was formerly editor of the archaeology and folklore journal 3rd Stone. He is the author of Stukeley Illustrated.

Stonehenge and Druidism
by E. Raymond Capt
Artisan Pub (June 1, 1979)
ISBN: 0934666040


This book deals with the age old question of: the purpose of Stonehenge who the master-builders were and when it was built.

Stonehenge, standing in lonely majesty on England's great Salisbury Plain is wreathed in mystery. From the earliest times it has aroused the awe and curiosity of it's visitors. What was it's purpose? Who were the master builders? When was it built?

Although not counted as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, Stonehenge does count as one of the most unique wonders of the world. A monument so old that it's true history was probably forgotten by classic times. Greek and Roman writers hardly mention it.

There have been many folk legends and stories attached to that "Giganic Pile" as it was called by ancient writers. In more modern times most scholars agree it served as some kind of ceremonial building or religious structure for ancient peoples. It is, however, only within the last century, that archaeological excavations and astronomical computations have yielded reliable information about it's origin, history and purpose.

From pottery shards, ancient burials and the silent stones themselves, have come the amazing saga of a race of colonizers who created a unique civilization, in Britain, over 2000 years before the birth of Christ.

Stonehenge stands today, one signpost left along the way that identifies the Building Race. It bears witness to the vigour and vitality of a national religion, already passed from the primitive into the metaphysical stage, which embodied abstract ideas, astronomical observations and a high and pure code of ethics. (Artisan Publishers)

The Making of Stonehenge
by Rodney Castleden

outledge, 1993, ISBN 0-415-08513-6

"A good read and a thorough description of the archaeology of Stonehenge and its environs. The perspective also covers much more about the people who made Stonehenge and what we can infer about them, which adds colour to the archaeology. Unlike the colour added by conjecture and speculation, however, this author draws on the academic studies and theorems of modern archaeology. Readable but still authentic - a good combination for those who want more than the Stonehenge guidebook. " Richard Muthar (


The Stonehenge People:
An Exploration of Life in Neolithic Britain, 4700-2000 Bc

by Rodney Castleden
Routledge, 1991, ISBN: 0415040655

coverLooking beyond the origins of Stonehenge to the origins of the culture that produced it, Rodney Castleden debunks many of the popular myths surrounding the monument and its builders. Castleden shows, for example, that Stonehenge was not built by the Druids, nor was its Heel Stone used to mark the position of the midsummer sunrise. Castleden examines the Stonehenge people's material culture as well as their social, political and religious structures to present a convincing interpretation of Stonehenge's cultural context and symbolic meaning.

Rodney Castleden is a geographer and geomorphologist, and has researched landscape processes and prehistory for the last twenty years. He is author of The Minoans (Routledge, 1990), The Knossos Labyrinth (Routledge, 1989), and The Wilmington Giant (1983). (


Stonehenge Complete
by Christopher Chippindale
hames & Hudson; ISBN: 0500277508


cover "Splendidly illustrated...will for years to come be a
standard reference work."
- Audrey Burl, The Times Literary Supplement

Winner of the British Archaeological Book Award Includes objective, detailed analysis of theories about Stonehenge; many illustrations.

"An archaeologist of the old school with zero tolerance for the alternative and the fringe, delivering himself of the immortal quote "Much of what has been written about Stonehenge is derivative, second-rate or plain wrong.". Chippindale still comes up with a highly readable though one-sided look both at the history of Stonehenge - and the history of the history of Stonehenge from Inigo Jones' Roman theorising to the latest alternative fringe. I'd like to have seen a bit more about Stonehenge itself and a little less of the history of the history, but recommended for scholars of Stonehenge nevertheless."
Richard Muthar (

- 296 pages Revised edition (June 1994)
Thames & Hudson; ISBN: 0500277508 ; Dimensions (in inches): 0.84 x 10.07 x 7.63

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Who Owns Stonehenge?
by Christopher Chippindale, Paul Devereux, Peter Fowler, Rhys Jones, Tim Sebastian

B. T. Batsford Ltd, London: 1990

coverStonehenge, over 4000 years old and the most massive and striking remnant of pre-Roman civilization in Britain, has fascinated men for centuries. Yet although many theories-archaeological and astronomical, mainstream and offbeat-have tried to explain its sense and purpose, it remains an enigma.
Yet Stonehenge is not a quiet enigma: it is Europe's most contentious ancient monument. The question of who has rights to the place, and what they may do there, is a much-publicized issue. Annual fights over Stonehenge have become part of the summer ritual, as festival-goers, Druids and mystics gather there in June to celebrate rites that are ancient or modern, moving or bogus, according to your viewpoint.
Five expert contributors now set out their contradictory ideas about Stonehenge, from the viewpoints of archaeologists, ancient Britons, earth-mystery students, civil libertarians and bemused bystanders. Their debate is informed, acute, extra-ordinary, funny-and essential to understanding why the past matters in the world today.
The contributors
Christopher Chippindale is editor of Antiquity and assistant curator in the Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.
Paul Devereux is a director of the Centre for Earth Mysteries Studies.
Peter Fowler is Professor of Archaeology at the University of Newcastle Upon Tyne.
Rhys Jones is Senior Research Fellow in archaeology at the Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University.
Tim Sebastian is the Secular Arch-Druid.
Cover illustration: the Sarsen Circle and Heel Stone, Stonehenge, at midsummer sunrise (English Heritage)

Stonehenge: A New Understanding
by John Christie
April 4, 2005, ISBN: 1412029651

This chronological, highly controversial, liberally illustrated, work of detection, is a tour de force, written to satisfy those among the general readership, whose enquiring minds have been less than satisfied with the many explanations provided so far. The revelation of new discoveries and different interpretations, among its pages, are also intended to awaken those in the world of archaeology to different ways of viewing the various phases of development embodied in that ancient place. At the same time, the author has tried to provide those in that specific field with sufficient information, to enable them to follow his groundbreaking footsteps. The accidental timing of this book’s completion perfectly coincides with a general re-awakening of interest, and English Heritage’s radical plans to provide Stonehenge with a new visitors’ centre, together with their intention to improve the way the pilgrim approaches this greatly revered monument. Through his efforts to expound alternative theories, the author reveals many facts unknown to others, even those closely associated with Stonehenge, that help to explain this ancient monument’s largely misunderstood history. In so doing, those discoveries lend verification to his theories. Although it is not possible to know the thought processes of such a distant people, he also reveals a little of the astonishing wisdom possessed by the people who erected the stones, and prior to that event, operated that site for nearly a thousand years as a cathedral to their Sun and Moon worship.(


Stonehenge: 2000 B.C.
by Bernard Cornwell
HarperCollins, April 2000 ISBN: 0060197005

Stonehenge: 2000 B.C. by Bernard CornwellFrom the Publisher
Four thousand years ago, a stranger's death at the Old Temple of Ratharryn-and his ominous "gift" of gold-precipitates the building of what for centuries to come will be known as one of mankind's most singular and remarkable achievements. Bernard Cornwell's epic novel Stonehenge catapults us into a powerful and vibrant world of ritual and sacrifice at once timeless and wholly original-a tale of patricide, betrayal, and murder; of bloody brotherly rivalry: and of the never-ending quest for power, wealth, and spiritual fulfillment. 
Three brothers-deadly rivals-are uneasily united in their quest to create a temple to their gods. There is Lengar, the eldest, a ruthless warrior intent on replacing his father as chief of the tribe of Ratharryn; Camaban, his bastard brother, a sorcerer whose religious fervor inspires the plan for Stonehenge; and Saban, the youngest, through whose expertise the temple will finally be completed. Divided by blood but united-precariously-by a shared vision, the brothers begin erecting their mighty ring of granite, aligning towering stones to the movement of the heavenly bodies, and raising arches to appease and unite their gods. Caught between the zealousness of his ambitious brothers, Saban becomes the true leader of his people, a peacemaker who will live to see the temple built in the name of salvation and regeneration. 
Bernard Cornwell, long admired for his rousing narrative and meticulous historical imaginings, has here delivered his masterpiece, the most compelling and powerful human drama of its kind since Ken Follett's Pillars of the Earth and Edward Rutherford's Sarum. His re-creation of civilization as it might have been in 2000 B.C. at once amplifies the mystery of his subject and makes the world of Stonehenge come alive as never before.

About the Author: 
Bernard Cornwell, is the author of the highly acclaimed American Civil War series The Starbuck Chronicles: Rebel, Copperhead, and Battle Flag. A native of England, where he worked as a journalist in newspapers and television, Cornwell is now a resident of the United States and lives with his American wife in Cape Cod.


King Arthur's Place in Prehistory : The Great Age of Stonehenge
by W. A. Cummins
utton Publishing, 1997  ISBN: 0750906642

Book Description
A respected geologist and archaeologist connects the real historical European stone circle sites, including Stonehenge.

This search for the real King Arthur, behind Dark Age and medieval legend, is a fascinating piece of historical, archaeological and scientific detective work. Although there is a romantic popular image of Arthur and his knights of the Round Table, it has long been believed that the figure behind the legendary character was a resistance leader of the British against the threat of Saxon domination. Dr Cummins goes further, tracing the legend back to an earlier Bronze Age prototype for Arthur, who may be linked with the Wessex Culture, and Stonehenge in particular. The suggestion that a limited amount of genuine historical tradition about people and events in Bronze Age Britain has survived, heavily disguised, in classical and medieval sources, is unique. Dr Cummins's closely argued text is, however, coherent and convincing. His use of sources, such as the work of the much maligned twelfth-century historian Geoffrey of Monmouth, who links Arthur with Utherpendragon, Ambrosius, Merlin and Vortigern, throws new light on King Arthur, Stonehenge and the Bronze Age in general. Not only of interest to archaeologists and historians, but also to anyone who has ever been fascinated by the legend of King Arthur, this exciting and thought-provoking new book indicates that what happened in the second millennium BC at Stonehenge was of such intensity that its imprint was left on folk memory and preserved in oral tradition for over two thousand years - and even until today.

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Science and Stonehenge
by Cunliffe Barry and Renfrew Colin,
Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-726174-4


This scientific reference is not written with the layman in mind, but it has to be a definitive reference for scholars researching Stonehenge. It is a collection of papers presented at the Royal Society symposium "Science and Stonehenge" 20-21 March 1996. As such it the contents are not always honed to be easy for the layman reader. As a goldmine of raw studies, data, fieldwork and cutting-edge theory it is excellent. Richard Muthar Megalithia 




Prehistoric Britain
by Timothy Darvill
B.T. Batsford Ltd London 1988

clickp. 97
The most famous stone circle in Britain lies in the centre of the henge monument at Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire. This monument began life as a simple cremation cemetery and henge with an outlying stone (the heel-stone). After a period of abandonment the site was remodelled about 1700 BC. An avenue was added and a double circle of 82 undressed bluestones, brought from the Prescelly Mountains of South Wales, was built within the henge, although probably never finished. Further remodelling led to the dressing and erection 30 upright sarsen stones linked by mortice and tenon joints to a continuous ring of lintels and enclosing a horseshoe shaped setting of five trilithons. Two more remodellings followed involving the reincorporation of the bluestones.


Stonehenge: The Biography of a Landscape
by Timothy Darvill
Tempus Publishing Ltd (15 Sep 2006)
ISBN: 0752436414

kliknij by powiekszycMore than a million people visit the Stonehenge World Heritage Site every years, pondering the stones and soaking up the surrounding landscape. When was it built? Who built it? What was it? How did it work? Here Timothy Darvill argues that around 2600 BC local communities transformed an existing sanctuary into a cult centre that developed a big reputation: perhaps as an oracle and healing place. For centuries people came from near and far, and even after activities at the site began to decline the memory lived on and people chose to be buried within sight of the stones. But Stonehenge itself is only part of a story that involves the whole landscape. People first came to the area during the last Ice Age neary half a million years ago. Long before Stonehenge was built they were erecting posts, digging pits to contain sacred objects, and constructing long mounds to house their dead. By the Age of Stonehenge this was a heavily occupied landscape with daily life focused along the River Avon. Later, farms and hamlets were established. Roman villas came and went, and from about AD 1000 the pattern of villages dotted along the valleys and the towns of Amesbury came to prominence. In the last hundred years or so the army established training grounds and camps, but the biggest battles in recent years have been over the future of the Stonehenge landscape. 319p, many b/w and col pls (Tempus 2006)

Stonehenge ‘No Place for the Dead’
In his new book Stonehenge: The Biography of a Landscape (Tempus Publishing) Professor Tim Darvill, Head of the University’s Archaeology Group, suggests that the ancient monument was a source and centre for healing and not a place for the dead as believed by many previous scholars.
Professor Darvill also makes a case for revellers who travel to be near the ancient monument for the summer solstice in June to reconsider. Instead, he believes that those seeking to tap into the monument’s powers at its most potent time of the year should do so in December during the winter solstice when our ancestors believed that the henge was ‘occupied’ by a prehistoric god - the equivalent of the Roman and Greek god of healing, Apollo – who ‘chose’ to reside in winter with the Hyborians, long believed to be the ancient Britons.
The basis for Professor Darvill’s findings lies in the Preseli Mountains in west Wales where he and colleague Professor Geoffrey Wainwright have located an exact origin for the bluestones used in the construction of Stonehenge some 250 km away.
'The questions most people ask when they consider Stonehenge is 'why was it built?' and ‘'how was it was used?' says Professor Darvill. 'Our work has taken us to the Preseli Mountains to provide a robust context for the source of the bluestones and to explore various ideas about why those mountains were so special to prehistoric people'.

Stonehenge ‘No Place for the Dead’, Says BU Expert
Professor Timothy Darvill, Head of the Archaeology Group at Bournemouth University, has breathed new life into the controversy surrounding the origins of Stonehenge by publishing a theory which suggests that the ancient monument was a source and centre for healing and not a place for the dead as believed by many previous scholars.
After publication of his new book on the subject - Stonehenge: The Biography of a Landscape (Tempus Publishing) - Professor Darvill also makes a case for revellers who travel to be near the ancient monument for the summer solstice in June to reconsider. Instead, Professor Darvill believes that those seeking to tap into the monument’s powers at its most potent time of the year should do so in December during the winter solstice when our ancestors believed that the henge was ‘occupied’ by a prehistoric god - the equivalent of the Roman and Greek god of healing, Apollo – who ‘chose’ to reside in winter with the Hyborians, long believed to be the ancient Britons.
The basis for Professor Darvill’s findings lies in the Preseli Mountains in west Wales where he and colleague Professor Geoffrey Wainwright have located an exact origin for the bluestones used in the construction of Stonehenge some 250 km away.
“The questions most people ask when they consider Stonehenge is ‘why was it built?’ and ‘how was it was used?’” says Professor Darvill. “Our work has taken us to the Preseli Mountains to provide a robust context for the source of the bluestones and to explore various ideas about why those mountains were so special to prehistoric people”.
“We have several strands of evidence to consider. First, there have folklore in the form of accounts written in the 14th century which refer to a magician bringing the stones from the west of the British Isles to what we know as Salisbury Plain,” he continues. “It was believed that these particular stones had many healing properties because in Preseli, there are many sacred springs that are considered to have health-giving qualities; the water comes out of the rocks used to build Stonehenge and it’s well established that as recently as the late 18th century, people went to Stonehenge to break off bits of rock as talismans.
“Also, around the Stonehenge landscape, there are many burials, some of which have been excavated and amongst these there are a good proportion of people who show sings of being unwell – some would have walked with a limp or had broken bones – just the sort of thing that in modern times pressurises people to seek help from the Almighty.
“In the case of Stonehenge, I suggest that the presiding deity was a prehistoric equivalent of the Greek and Roman god of healing, Apollo. Although his main sanctuary was at Delphi in Greece, it is widely believed that he left Greece in the winter months to reside in the land of the Hyborians – usually taken to be Britain.
“Altogether, and with the incorporation of the stones from Wales, Stonehenge is a very powerful and positive place of pilgrimage, although whether the monument’s healing power actually worked is a matter for further discussion,” he concludes.

Earth Lights
Towards an Explanation of the UFO Enigma
by Paul Devereux

Turnstone Press Limited
Wellingborough, Northamptonshire 1982


In the early 1960s C. A."Newham had been doing work at Stonehenge, showing that the constructors of the site thousands of years ago seem to have had a clear awareness of solar and lunar movement. In articles in Nature in 1963 and 1964, and in Stonehenge Decoded in 1965, Professor Gerald Hawkins of the Smithsonian Institute detailed his own work at Stonehenge, showing it to be a 'stone age computer' preserving certain solar and lunar alignments within its structure. It was capable of eclipse prediction.
In 1967 itself. Professor Alexander Thorn's Megalithic Sites In Britain was published which, using a dense mathematical approach, provided evidence of prehistoric astronomical practices that had staggering implications.
All this was a revival and detailed extension of pioneer work done by researchers earlier this century into the nature of prehistoric sites. The revival was a signal that prehistoric societies and their understanding were going to have to be reappraised.
This exciting prospect gave impetus to a curious, and pro-bably mistaken idea that was developed in the early 1960s by an ex-R.A.F. pilot called Tony Wedd. He was an ufologist who had also read the books on leys published in the 1920s and the 1930s by Alfred Watkins. In 1955 Aime Michel published the results of his analysis of a French UFO wave or 'flap'. He had found that landings and near landings of UFOs occurred in alignments he called ^orthotonies'. It was Wedd's brainwave to suggest the possibility that ley alignments and orthotonies were related and that the UFOs might be extracting some form of telluric, terrestrial magnetic force from the leys for propulsion. Wedd further postulated that the ancient markers on ley align-ments—stone circles, monoliths, burial mounds, hill-top earthworks and the like might be used by UFO pilots as landmarks during their aerial perambulations. One senses here something of the ex-R.A.F. pilot in Wedd's theorizing! Nevertheless, a fresh if parochial interest in Watkins' theory was awakened in some ufologists, and the ley concept was rescued from obscurity. Another new angle on the UFO mystery had also be signposted.
The publication of Michell's The Flying Saucer Vision occurred at exactly the right time: here was a work making rudimentary links between ancient sites, UFOs and leys when serious research was opening up new vistas of possible pre-historic skills, when the ley theory was being revived and when the skies were alive with UFO activity to such an extent that more mundane news was being elbowed from the headlines. A potent mental brew had been concocted and was to cause the development of an important new arena of thought, that has come to be known as'Earth Mysteries'(Chapter 6).

The most famous henge of all, Stonehenge, some miles to the south of Avebury, was commenced in the Neolithic period but had alterations and additions made to it over several centuries so that the latest phases of its construction were still being under-taken well into the Bronze Age. A significant feature of Stonehenge is the presence of the bluestones (the smaller stones at the site). These tell us that the megalith builders did not monumentalize their sacred sites by heaping up whatever dirt and rocks were to hand, like a child constructing a sandcastle on the beach. On the contrary, there are many sites where great stones were brought considerable distances to be erected at specific locations. Nowhere is this more true than at Stonehenge. The bluestones are believed to have been brought from Preseli in South Wales (the nearest source of the stone). A land-and-water journey of two hundred miles or more. This tells us that the material that went into the constructions was important to the builders. At Stonehenge, even the 'local' gargantuan sarsen stones, comprising the later trilithon uprights and lintel features that we usually associate with the site, were brought from distances further than twenty miles away on the surrounding plain. The centuries-long evolution of Stonehenge tells us clearly, too, that place was important to prehistoric consciousness.
Again, henges are not fully understood. The consensus of current opinion is that they were ceremonial centres. Even this might not be completely accurate. Euan McKie, pointing out that at least some of the henges supported wooden structures, has suggested that the henges may have housed the 'universities' of early Bronze Age astronomer-priests.2 C. A. Newham and, later, Gerald Hawkins3 put forward evidence that Stonehenge could have been used for precise astronomical observations, an idea studied at the beginning of this century by one of the fathers of astro-archaeology. Sir Norman Lockyer.
It is possible that the henges were more secular than sacred in nature. But, as will be suggested, it may not be possible to separate secular and religious, or scientific and magical, func-tions in these early societies.

It has been folk knowledge for centuries if not millenia that the midsummer Sun rises behind the Heel Stone at Stonehenge when viewed from the centre of the sarsen circle. The work this century of the astro-archaeologists (or archaeoastronomers) such as Lockyer, Newham, Hawkins and, particularly. Pro-fessor Alexander Thorn, strongly suggests that at least that piece of folk knowledge was soundly based. Research into ancient astronomy strongly indicates that many other stone circles could have been used in prehistory for astronomical functions to produce not only general calendrical information suitable for an agricultural society, but also to provide far more sophisticated understanding of lunar motion(a complex study) leading to the ability to predict solar eclipses and other esoteric knowledge relating to cosmic behaviour.
It is really on the basis of Thorn's work that astro-archaeology now stands as a serious contender for consideration as an acceptable science in its own right. Thorn, an engineer, spent decades of his life surveying hundreds of stone circles around Britain. In most cases his were the first professional surveys carried out at such sites. His first book'2 in 1967 was like a 'well-packaged parcel bomb', as the distinguished prehistorian Professor R. J. C. Atkinson put it, in that it took a while for the complex evidence it contained to register fully with orthodox archaeologists. The implications of Thorn's work are stunning and, if correct, it could mean the end of any notions that people late Neolithic and early Bronze Age societies with ignorant savages.
Thorn's research indicates three basic findings: that stone circles were not just crude circular configurations of stones but were laid out to specific groundplans of some geometrical sophistication; that a basic unit of measurement was employed (Thorn called it the 'Megalithic Yard'—2.72 feet), and that circles acted as backsights for distant foresights composed of natural and artificial features marking significant moments in the solar and lunar cycles. All these findings are statistical but the data base established by Thorn and his co-workers is currently unsurpassed.


Earth Memory
by Paul Devereux
Qantum, Foulsham & Co. Ltd 1991

The association of astronomy and sacred place is a traditional one, and survived in Europe as a folkmemory, usually in the form of seasonal fairs and games. At Stonehenge, famous for its midsummer sunrise over the outlying Heel Stone, there were 'vile and indecorous games' at the solstice period, as the Bishop of Salisbury described them in 1223. These games very possibly harkened back to pagan attendance at the site. Sports were held at Stonehenge even as late as the eighteenth century, as a newspaper notice of 1781 confirms. The dates given in the paper for the event were July 4 and 5, not the traditional Midsummer Day of June 24 (the astronomical solstice is June 21), an interesting piece of evidence supporting a greater antiquity for the gathering, as folklorist John Goulstone has pointed out:

Popular gatherings tied like this to the old style calendar were almost invariably traditional events originally celebrated eleven
days earlier in the calendar year. Thus before the official changeover from Julian to Gregorian reckoning in 1752, when September 14 immediately followed September 2 - thereby provoking public outcry over the "lost" eleven days - the two days July 4 and 5 were June 23 and 24, the original Midsummer Eve and Midsummer day.


Earth Mysteries
by Paul Devereux
Piatkus Books (November 15, 2000)
ISBN: 0749920351

A concise, self contained read, bringing the whole subject area up to date. Of special value to newcomers to the earth mysteries field, but even some old hands will find points of interest in it. The Guide also contains practical exercises in such things as experiencing the spirit of place. (Review from The Ley Hunter)



Places of Power
by Paul Devereux,
Blandford, London, 1990, ISBN 0 7137 2215 0


A review of the results of the late Seventies/eighties project "The Dragon Project" which looked for physical evidence of earth energies. Though some have described this as showing a null result there seems to be enough measurable and unusual to warrant further study. Being aimed at a general readership, the emphasis is on interpretation rather than peer review, so there is not enough detail to reproduce the measurements...(Richard Muthar - Megalithia)




Stone Age Soundtracks: The Acoustic Archaeology of Ancient Sites
by Paul Devereux
Vega (March 1, 2002)
ISBN: 184333447X


When we walk through ancient monuments, the silence strikes us: we simply cannot imagine what those who lived millennia before would have heard. But, to our Stone Age ancestors, dwelling in a quieter time, sound mattered much more than it does today. They had an acute awareness of rhythm and resonance, sang and played musical instruments, and ascribed magical qualities to many sounds. Exciting research--known as acoustic archaeology--has reconstructed this vanished aspect of long ago, allowing us to "hear" it again. Computer modeling and sophisticated equipment have calculated frequencies and timbres, demonstrating that stone-built chambers, sanctuaries, and even caves were deliberately constructed to enhance ritual sounds. This new knowledge both exposes the origins of music and reveals a lost world where echoes were seen as the voices of the spirits. Travel from chambered mounds in Ireland to French and Spanish Paleolithic caves to Mayan temples in Central America, and listen to the past once more. (

Architecture, they say, is frozen music. If so, then Paul Devereux has taken it out of the cooler and put it to defrost. He sets out to prove, with the aid of meticulous scientific measurements, that prehistoric sites were deliberately constructed for their acoustic properties.

At the heart of this book are two surveys, one by Devereux himself with Robert Jahn, the other by Aaron Watson and David Keating. Both concentrated on megalithic sites in Britain, and both concluded that they were laid out to intensify the sound effects of rituals - effects which included amplification, intensified sound at particular places, resonant humming, and the vague sense of eeriness produced by the deep levels of ultrasound. Investigations at several chambered tombs found that they all resonate at roughly 110 Hz, within the expected range of a baritone male voice.

How did the ancient people become aware of these effects? They may have built on a long-standing acquaintance with the sound properties of natural places. Experiments at Palaeolithic painted caves have found meaningful patterns of resonance in them. It’s not just that you get some strange noises in the heart of the earth: the cave paintings are situated at just the right points to indicate the sounds, with hoofed animals at a place of clattering echoes and other visual hints. The paintings are still there: the sounds have long since died away. Deeper in the caves, stalactites have been marked as lithophones - stones which will produce a ringing note when struck. And even in the open, abstract art of later periods has been found to occupy special echoing places. Rock and roll, it seems, will never die.

Is this just an archaeological curiosity, or is it something more? Devereux sets the research in context with chapters on the anthropology of music and the power of sound over the human mind. It seems that ritual drumming, that old shamanic standby, can alter brain rhythms. A scientific basis underlies mystical theories of sound and the haunted experience of ghostly and fairy tunes. And then there is whole psychology of music, its ability to summon up images too deep for tears: we associate sound with the numinous, just as we associate sight with the rational. Devereux moves deftly through these uncharted waters, linking neurophysiology and trance states to create a picture of the archaic world which is familiar from his earlier books.

Stone Age Soundtracks is unquestionably the best book in its field. OK, so far it’s the only book in its field, but as a preliminary essay it sets a high standard. Acoustic archaeology today is what astro-archaeology was in the Seventies, and if future researchers can contribute anything, it will be a more critical methodology for evaluating the evidence which will come pouring in. Not all acoustics are deliberate - remember the Albert Hall - and when effects are deliberate, we should consider possibilities other than shamanism, or even religion. Could there be an archaeology of sound as an instrument of kingship? Virtually nothing - nothing rigorous, anyway - has been done on the acoustics of historical structures. Do nunneries resonate at a different frequency from monasteries? There’s a lot more to be said on this, but meanwhile Devereux has sounded the first note. It will have repercussions. (Reviewed by Jeremy Harte)


Encyclopedia of Magic&Ancient Wisdom
The essential Guide to Myth, Magic and Supernatural

by Cassandra Eason
Judy Piatkus (Publishers) 2001 London


Megaliths and Sacred Geometry
Magic circles are the most basic form of sacred geometry and have been used throughout history. Stone circles were created with precision and set out according to Pythagorean geometric principles. The unit of measure used was the megalithic yard of 2.72ft which, along with the megalithic mile, is found in the distances and angles along ley lines between ancient sites. Stone circles were aligned to mark significant positions in the path of the moon or sun, especially the equinoxes and solstices. The 56 holes dug inside the bank at Stonehenge, known as the Aubrey holes, are positioned at precise regular intervals around a concentric circle about 285ft in diameter. It has been hypothesised that the cycle of the moon, which takes 27.3 days, was tracked by the megalith builders by moving a marker by two holes each day to complete a circuit in 28 days. What is more, by moving the marker by three holes per year to complete a full circuit in 18.67 years, it would be possible to keep track of the nodes, the points where the paths of the sun and the moon apparently intersect to produce an eclipse. Thus both lunar and solar eclipses could be predicted. Since many of the festivals were based on the passage of the sun and moon and became formalised in the Celtic eightfold wheel of the year, the circles themselves provided a microcosm in which the cosmic cycles were celebrated and linked with the lives of the people and their agricultural year.

(...)Stonehenge is probably the best-known stone circle or megalith in the world, located on the Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire. Investigations over the past 100 years have revealed that Stonehenge was built in several stages from 2800-1800BC. It is oriented to mark the sunrise and moonrise at the summer and winter solstices. The Heel Stone, or Helios Stone after the Greek Sun God, is known as the Sun Stone, for the sun rises over this at the summer solstice. At sunset on the summer solstice the Heel Stone casts a shadow on the Altar Stone, thus marking the beginning of the dying of the year. Modern Druids (see p.118) still welcome the summer solstice at Stonehenge as their Mecca. For though Stonehenge was in existence long before the original Druids worshipped there, there may be connections with earlier megalithic priests /astronomers /sacred geometrists who transmitted their wisdom to the Druidic order who have carried it into the modern world.


Stonehenge Landscapes: Journeys through real-and-imagined worlds
by Sally Exon, Vince Gaffney, Ann Woodward and Ron Yorston
ISBN 0953992306
book + CD with single-user licence


"Stonehenge Landscapes" is the largest digital analysis of the archaeological landscape and monuments of Stonehenge ever attempted. The study uses data from more than 1200 monuments. The contents of the Stonehenge barrows are collated for the first time and presented in a series of appendices. The result of this endeavour is a major phenomenological study of the development of the Stonehenge landscape from the Mesolithic to the Early Bronze Age.
The authors explain how the landscape emerged over time, the developing relationships between the public monuments, and how these monuments created new spaces for social action in prehistory. The way monuments were used and perceived is discussed and the results are demonstrated through interactive software which displays GIS data, animations of movement along monuments and through the landscape, as well as 3-dimensional views of the landscape, panoramic photographs and videos. Uniquely, the reader can access all the data through their web browser, permitting them to perform their own studies and produce their own reading of the landscape of Stonehenge. "Stonehenge Landscapes" is a radical step forward in archaeological publishing, integrating computing and phenomenological study: permitting new insights into a well-known landscape and allowing the reader to participate in the study and interpretation of the results.
'Stonehenge Lanscapes' CD-ROM includes a software program to display various data sets. The copyright owner of this program is Ronald Yorston. Archaeopress holds a licence to distribute the program as part of the electronic version of 'Stonehenge Landscapes'. (

The Atlantis Blueprint
by Rand Flem-ath and Colin Wilson
Little, Brown Book London 2000


p. 201-202
In the early 1960s, the British astronomer Gerald Hawkins had started to investigate the possibility that Stonehenge might
be a kind of Stone Age computer, constructed to calculate the moment of sunrise and moonrise over an 18.6-year cycle. His Stonehenge Decoded (1965)14 became an immediate bestseller, although most astronomers were unconvinced. In fact, its ideas are now generally accepted, and in the 1970s the work of Professor Alexander Thorn on ancient stone circles lent support to Hawkins's theory.
The basic notion is that by standing in the centre of the circle you can face the sunrise (or moonrise) and foretell the season according to its position behind the 'markers'. Lomas and Knight decided to try and construct a 'Uriel machine' on a Yorkshire hilltop in what amounted to a simple observatory.
They returned repeatedly to take their observations of sunrise or sunset from the centre of the ring to the horizon, and stuck
markers in place. Persisting for a year, they ended up with two curved rows of posts facing one another. And they learned - as ancient 'henge' builders had learned - that the year is not neatly divided into four by solstices and equinoxes. Because the earth's orbit around the sun is an ellipse, there are 182 sunrises from the winter to the summer solstice, but 183 from the summer to the winter solstice. The same disparity is found between the spring and autumn equinoxes.
Their observations enabled them to learn why the ancient monument builders - these 'Stone Age Einsteins' - had chosen as their unit of length what Thorn called the 'rnegalithic yard' - 32.64 inches. (Thorn admitted he had doubled the basic unit that he found in all the megalithic sites - 16.32 inches - in order to bring it closer to our modern yard.) Lomas and Knight found that their 'machine' registered the length of the year as 366 days (between one winter solstice and another), which led them to fix a 'megalithic degree', one-366th portion of the earth's revolution. They set their posts a megalithic degree apart, and found that a star took 3.93 minutes to move from one upright to the next.
The megalith builders almost certainly used a pendulum as their clock. The time a pendulum takes to complete one swing is determined by its length, and Lomas and Knight discovered that for the pendulum to swing 366 times in 3.93 minutes it had to be exactly 16.32 inches long, which is why the 'Stone Age Einsteins' chose 16.32 inches as their basic unit. Lomas and Knight had solved the problem that baffled Thorn.


When The Sky Fell
In Search of Atlantis
by Rand and Rose Flem-Ath
Orion Books Ltd, London 1996

Throughout ancient Europe giant stones were erected to honourthe sun. Stonehenge in Wiltshire, England, is one of the most famous of these sites. Like the structures in North and South America, Stonehenge may have been built as a magical device designed to prevent another earth crust displacement. By controlling the sun's movements, these massive stones might ensure the safety of the world. 
The horseshoe mouth of the stones is open to receive the sun's rays on the summer solstice. The body of the horseshoe corresponds to the path of the^un from sunrise to sunset. Each day, as spring moves towards summer, the sun rises slightly farther north on the morning horizon. On the summer solstice this "migration" north seems to stall. The day after the solstice, the sun reverses its journey and begins to rise farther south each morning. 
To a people ever vigilant to the dangers of a wayward sun, any irregularity threatens catastrophe. To prevent this, the priests may have, like their counterparts on Machu Picchu, attempted to "harness" the sun by "tying" its rays to successive stones within the horseshoe. 
Theworld would be safe for another year.

The Enigma of Stonehenge
by John Fowles and Barry Brukoff
Summit Books (October 1, 1980)
ISBN: 0671401165


The mute, enigmatic stones in Wiltshire reveal as much about those who have tried to fathom their secrets as about those who constructed them. If we can now say with twentieth-century archaeological certainty that the first wooden phase of Stonehenge was begun by Neolithic settlers in 2800 B.C., we can also say that well into the eighteenth century, elixirs made of ground bits of Stonehenge were a popular folk medicine. If the seventeenth century saw the dawn of serious archaeology, it found Inigo Jones as certain that Stonehenge was Roman as was Dr Charleton that it was Danish, while Aubrey and Stukeley proferred a theory that caught on for two centuries (and still draws white-robed believers to the site at the midsummer solstice). For them Stonehenge was a Temple of the Druids. Stonehenge has long held sway over the archaeologist, the mystic, the astonomer and the poet, and a large part of its fascination for the individual observer is that it still evokes such a wide range of feeling and thought. In the photographs of Barry Brukoff and the words of John Fowles, Stonehenge is explored from every curious angle: the stone monument woven with light and sky lays down its challenge to our knowledge and to our imagination as it has to generations before us. There is the intellectual miracle that the builders may have detected the moon's long cycle 2000 years before the Greeks; the work miracle of transporting the huge stones; the mystery of why the architecture of Stonehenge is unique of its kind; and countless other puzzles. John Fowles holds that even if we may now scientifically dismiss Stukeley's blinding certainty that Stonehenge was built by the Druids who were the priests of one of the last tribes of Israel, his folly holds the key to all that has subsequently become of Stonehenge in the communal imagination: its symbolic appeal, its Britishness, its refusal to be buried in scientific certainty, its power to haunt us with its insoluble questions. Barry Brukoff's photographs capture this presence and poetry. (


Magnificent Numbers of the Great Pyramid and Stonehenge
by Bonnie Gaunt
Publisher: Bonnie Gaunt (June 1985)
ISBN: 0960268812


kliknij by powiekszycThe discovery of the inter-relationships of the numbers involved in the geometry of the great Pyramid and Stonehenge led to a comprehensive investigation into the "language of the universe" and a glimpse into the very foundation of creation. The numbers reveal the evidence of the existence of an intelligent Creator.
Numbers have long been a source of fascination and wonder to man. The ancient Pythagoras was so awed by the relationship of numbers to time and space that he theorized: "Numbers are the language of the universe." And indeed Pythagoras was right.
The discovery of the inter-relationship of the numbers involved in the geometry of the Great Pyramid and Stonehenge led Bonnie Gaunt to a comprehensive investigation into the "language of the Universe", and a glimpse into the very foundation of creation. She found, from this investigation, that the numbers reveal the evidence of the existence of an intelligent Creator.
Mrs. Gaunt begins with the "oldest wonder", the Great Pyramid of Giza. Bonnie Gaunt:
"On the rocky plateau of Gizeh, fifteen miles from Cairo, stands the worlds most amazing wonder, the Great Pyramid. It stands silent and serene against the Egyptian sky, yet it stands in bold defiance against time; it stands as a sacred memorial to the intelligence of its builders, and to their knowledge of time, space, and the universe. The awesome grandeur of this magnificent structure commands our reverence . Its very mass boggles the mind. As we stand in its shadow and look upward we feel humbled and dwarfed by its enormity."
Mrs. Gaunt introduces the reader to the immense size of the Great Pyramid ,"Its base covers thirteen acres . . . contains enough masonry to build a sidewalk three inches thick and two feet wide around the world. It rises to a height comparable to a 40-story building that would fill seven blocks of midtown Manhattan." She quotes the ancient Strabo"like a building let down from heaven, untouched by human hands."

The author relates many past experiences and studies others have made of this marvelous structure and moves on to Stonehenge, graphically describing it and showing the correlation between the two. She then directs our attention to the ancient system of numbering known as "gematria" and its relationship to the Great Pyramid and Stonehenge (her section covering the gematria for Jesus Christ and its relationship to Bible prophecy is utterly amazing). In the Hebrew alphabet each letter has a number so that every word in Hebrew also had a numeric value which often revealed a hidden meaning. From her knowledge of this magnificent numbering system she is able to show a strong relationship between the Bible and the two ancient structures.

She has added to her pages photos, drawings and diagrams and also informative appendixes that will greatly assist the newcomer to this exciting subject, while at the same time, adding to the pleasure of those long familiar with the intricacies of these ancient marvels.

Read and enjoy a fascinating journey as you discover the language of the Universe: The Magnificent Numbers.

Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid : Window on the Universe
by Bonnie Gaunt
Adventures Unlimited Press (June 1, 1993)
ISBN: 0960268839

kliknij by powiekszycThis first book on the sacred geometry of these two ancient and mystical sites, the Great Pyramid and Stonehenge, is a fascinating study of the geometry and inner mathematics encompassed by and encoded in these structures. Chapters include information about: -- Prophecies concerning the inner chambers of the Great Pyramid -- Biblical numerical codes that correspond to those of Stonehenge -- Crop circles Author Bonnie Gaunt concludes that the numbers encoded into these ancient structures are modern man's tangible link with antiquity, and that together, Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid may be a window through which the secrets of the universe and the origins of creation can be glimpsed. Bonnie Gaunt extends the theories of the sacred geometry of Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid begun by British researcher John Michell in his books, The View Over Atlantis and City of Revelation. (

Mathematician and theologist Bonnie Gaunt's study on the sacred geometry of Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid. Bonnie claims that Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid are not only modern man's tangible link with antiquity, they are, in fact, a window through which can be found the secrets of the universe and the origins of creation. Through mathematics, geometry and the ancient science of "measuring" and architecture, man can know the secrets of the universe as encoded in these ancient structures. This is a fascinating study of the geometry and mathematics encompassed in these amazing structures as well as the prophecy beliefs surrounding the inner chambers of the Great Pyramid, the gematria of the Bible, and how this translates into numbers which are encoded within these structures. (


The Stones and the Scarlet Thread: New Evidence from the Bible's Number Code, Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid!
by Bonnie Gaunt
Adventures Unlimited Press (April 2, 2001)
ISBN: 0932813879


This text attempts to confirm the authenticity of the Bible's number code. New evidence has supposedly been found linking the code's pattern of numbers and its time prophecies with the geometry of ancient stone structures such as Stonehenge and the Great Pyramid.

Bonnie Gaunt is the author of several books on ancient codes, measurements and mathematics and how they relate to Stonehenge, the Great Pyramid and the Bible. She has appeared on various television and radio talk shows, including the 700 Club and also appeared in the CBS documentary The Mysterious Bible Codes. She lives in Michigan. (



Sickles to Circles: Britain and Ireland at the Time of Stonehenge
by Alex Gibson, Alison Sheridan
Tempus Publishing, Limited (April 2005)
ISBN: 0752429027

Also known as From Sickles to Circles: Britain and Ireland at the Time of Stonehenge. During the period 4000-1000 BC, prehistoric Britain and Ireland were at their closest. There were significant differences but at the same time their monuments, art and artefacts were closely related. This volume brings together the latest research from some twenty-five prehistorians on both sides of the Irish Sea to produce a clearly written and well-illustrated academic guide to this period.
Alex Gibson is Reader in Prehistory at the University of Bradford and author of two previous Tempus books. Alison Sheridan is Assistant Keeper of Archaeology at the National Museums of Scotland in Edinburgh.


Stonehenge and the Timber Circles of Britain and Europe
by Alex Gibson
Tempus Publishing Ltd (Oct 1998)
ISBN-10: 075241402X
ISBN-13: 978-0752414027

kliknij by powiekszycSynopsis: Timber circles have been largely ignored as a major and significant type of ancient monument. This book introduces timber circles in Britain, Eire, Holland, France and Germany, looks at their history, and examines key sites and artefacts. '

From the Back Cover
If only because timber is less permanent than stone, timber circles have been largely ignored as a major and significant type of ancient monument. In this pioneering work, Alex Gibson not only introduces the reader to timber circles in Britain, Eire, Holland, France and Germany, but argues that Stonehenge is essentially a timber circle: though made of stone, it is built with woodworking techniques and has closer parallels with timber circles than with stone ones.
Timber circles date from 3000 BC and continued in use until the Roman Conquest. Dr Gibson examines the key sites and their surviving artefacts, and uses evidence to reconstruct the appearance of the structures and their likely use. Excavation and reconstructions indicate that they are often sites of great sophistication and involved their creators in considerable effort. Used for religious purposes, many sites have lunar, solar and cardinal orientations; some involved processions, others feasting and still others may have been setting for human sacrifice.
Aided by a varied range of illustrations (including many in full colour), the author succeeds in bringing these forgotten prehistoric sites to life. The book, aided by a varied range of illustrations (including many in full colour), the author succeeds in bringing these forgotten prehistoric sites to life. The book is completed by a full, annotated Gazetter of timber circle sites.
Alex Gibson is an archaeologist working for English Heritage. One of Britain's leading authorities on prehistoric pottery, he is the co-author of Prehistoric Pottery for the Archaeologist, as well as being the author of numerous articles on pottery and timber circles.


Lines to the Mountain Gods. Nazca and the Mysteries of Peru
by Evan Hadingham
Harrp Ltd London 1987

Gerald S. Hawkins, who had a background and personality vastly different rom Maria's, had good reason to be concerned with the difficulty of assessing whether alignments were coincidental or genline. In 1963 he had raised a commotion in the academic world by publishing his paper "Stonehenge Decoded" in the British science journal Nature. This arose from a visit two years earlier to the impressive ancient ring of standing stones on Salisbury Plain in southern England. On this occasion Hawkins, who was then lecturing in astronomy at Boston University, was struck with the idea that the layout of stones and other features at the five-thousand-year-old site might conceal an astronomical meaning.
To test the idea, he took a plan of Stonehenge and drew lines between pairs of stones, pits or posts previously identified by
archaeologists. These lines were then "fed" into a computer programmed to match them against the motion of the sun and moon. Though a computer was not absolutely essential for such an operation, its use was one of the main reasons why Hawkins' work created such a sensation in the popular media. In the early 1960s computers were still a novelty; the fact that a modern machine could "decode" an ancient observatory was to many an extraordinary development.
Not everyone was impressed, however, since many archaeologists felt that Hawkins' results had to be due to a combination
of chance and his own wishful thinking. It took several years for the astronomical theory to win a measure of acceptance within the academic community. By that time Hawkins had corrected earlier mistakes and refined his measurements. Today few doubt his basic case that the builders of Stonehenge were aware of the major cycles of the sun and moon. Even so, we have little idea how important their astronomy was in relation to the other religious and social purposes undoubtedly served by the monument. In addition, there is no real agreement about how advanced the skywatching skills of the Stonehenge people became, nor exactly how precise they were to begin with; these important matters of detail remain open to conjecture. Indeed, the evidence of a single site is inevitably limited, particularly one as complex and as heavily vandalized as Stonehenge. During the years of the Stonehenge debate, Maria Reiche continued her labors at Nazca in relative obscurity. Her lack of interest in publishing her work widely meant that there was virtually no controversy or recognition surrounding it. Nevertheless, when a British filmmaker who had traveled throughout the Andes, Tony Morrison, told Hawkins about Reiche's theories, Hawkins was immediately intrigued. Here was another challenge similar to that of Stonehenge.

From Publishers Weekly
Archeologist Hadingham investigates the mysterious grooves carved in the Peruvian desert by the pre-Inca Nazca Indians, patterns that Erich von Daniken claimed were landing strips for UFOs. PW called this "thoroughly documented, beautifully written and richly illustrated."
Copyright 1988 Reed Business Information, Inc.

A Begginers Guide Arthurian Tradition
by Claire Hamilton


p. 27
Merlin and the giants’ dance

An intriguing story told by Geoffrey in his History demonstrates Merlin's druidic, astronomic and scientific skills and concerns the time when Merlin was adviser to Aurelius. Aurelius wanted to build a memorial to the 460 British warriors who were treacherously slain by the Saxons in Vortigern's time, and he asked Merlin for his advice. Merlin immediately suggested bringing the Giants' Dance from Ireland. This was made of magical stones for it was said that water used to wash the stones had the power to cure diseases.
Uther laughed at Merlin's suggestion because of the huge size of the stones, but Merlin insisted that he knew how to move them. Merlin then masterminded their removal, not by supernatural powers but by some ingenious engineering device that he had invented. In this way the stones were moved, so the legend goes, and stand as Stonehenge today.
Although it is not believed that the stones actually came from Ireland, it has certainly been proved that they came from the Preseli Mountains in Pembrokeshire and it is possible that this tale preserves an ancient folk-memory of their transportation.


Heaven's Mirror : Quest for the Lost Civilization
by Graham Hancock
Three Rivers Press (October 26, 1999)
ISBN: 0609804774

It could be true! That's the enthusiasm that author and scholar-mystic Graham Hancock counts on--in himself and in his readers--as he lays down his theories of an ancient (Atlantean, perhaps?) civilization that disseminated a sophisticated religion of ground-sky dualism and a "science" of immortality. Hancock's previous work, including the popular and controversial Fingerprints of the Gods, has drawn criticism for its leaps of faith and allegedly pseudoscientific conclusions, but Heaven's Mirror proves at least a little more substantial. His chief thesis is that numerous ancient sites and monuments--the pyramids of Mexico and Egypt, the ruins of Angkor Wat in Cambodia, the monuments of Yonaguni in the Pacific, and the megaliths of Peru and Bolivia--are situated in such a way, geodetically, that they point towards some separate and uniform influence, some lost civilization or "invisible college" of astronomer-priests. And that civilization, as evidenced in the mathematics and architecture of the sites, points towards some gnosis, or body of knowledge, that would allow humanity to transcend the trap of mortality, a worldview in which the knowledge-giving serpent of Eden is not a villain but a hero.
Whatever you think of Hancock's ideas and theoretical musings in archaeo-astronomy, Heaven's Mirror is a gorgeous book, thanks to the photography of Santha Faiia. Lush, evocative photos of the monoliths on Easter Island and temples deep in the Cambodian jungle are enough to set the mind to introspective wandering--maybe, just maybe, Hancock's got it right after all. --Paul Hughes

From Library Journal
Hancock culminates his life's work?begun in such best sellers as Fingerprints of the Gods?by arguing that monuments built worldwide by ancient civilizations are linked by a common human legacy handed down from the heavens.
Copyright 1998 Reed Business Information, Inc.--This text refers to the Hardcover edition.(

"Stonehenge was for a long while thought to have been built slowly - over about 1000 years between 2100 and noo BC.15 This chronology was called into question in 1996 by new archaeological evidence. Following a two-year study commissioned by the English Heritage Foundation, researchers concluded that the great circles of bluestones and sarsens had in fact been put up between 2600 BC and 2030 BC - with the bulk of the work being completed in just three centuries
between 2600 BC and 2300 BC.'6 Less than a year after these results were published another study showed that the stone circles had been preceded by wooden circles of 6-metre pine 'totem poles' dated to 8000 BC. Nothing is known about the religious ritual that Stonehenge was built to serve. Indeed, it is only an assumption (though probably a very good one) that religious rituals were conducted here at all. The earliest written accounts of the site date to the time of the Romans and by then almost all knowledge of its original function had been lost. Only the Druids, who did not build Stonehenge, were rumoured to know its secrets — but they were not talking."


The Mars Mystery. A Tale of the End of Two Worlds
by Graham Hancock, Robert Bauval and John Grisby

We have no doubt that the pyramids - and other ancient megalithic structures all around the world — were religious and spiritual buildings; nevertheless we do not object to the notion that they might also have had a number of more practical, or even 'scientific' uses. The ancients did not make the distinction between 'science' and 'spirit' that we do today and we suspect that the Heliopolitan cult required its initiates to cultivate what can only be described as a 'scientific' knowledge of the sky. We therefore see no contradiction at all between the practical observational and mathematical functions of a monument and its overriding spiritual and transformational purpose.
Nor are we the first to suggest that amongst the complex motives in the long-term development of certain mysterious ancient sites may have been a special interest in meteor showers. Dr Duncan Steel is the Director of Spaceguard Australia. We have referred to his work and discoveries frequently in these pages. It is his theory that the primary axis of Stonehenge in England, which lies 33 degrees of longitude west of Giza, was not originally designed to target the summer solstice sunrise (the most widely accepted view) but was targeted instead on the rising of the Taurid meteor stream. This was done during the 'preliminary' period which archaeologists refer to as 'Stonehenge I' - roughly from 3600 BC to 3100 BC - and the great megaliths that we see today were later laid out to conform with the same axis. The period of megalith construction is well dated at z6oo to 2300 BC, when the 'bluestones' and the 'sarsens' (the famous 'goal-posts') were erected21 - a period that overlaps curiously with the pyramid age in Egypt and with the worldwide episode of bombardment in the second half of the third millennium BC. But such bombardments are by their nature recurrent - at unpredictable intervals - and can be sustained over centurieson each occasion. Steel has produced evidence that an earlier episode occurred at the time of Stonehenge I, in the second half of the fourth millennium BC.
Steel's case, which is solidly based on dynamical studies and backtracking of trajectories within the Taurid stream, is that the disintegrating giant comet which has shadowed the Earth like a vampire or a ghoul for the past 20,000 years underwent one of its spectacular fragmentations some time in the fourth millennium BC. This was when the Taurid meteor stream was spawned and sent swarming through space on its Earth-crossing orbit - a swarm, as we shall see, that consists not only of meteorites and dust but that also incorporates an inert, near invisible mass of asteroids and several active comets. One of these, periodic Comet Encke, still well-known to modern astronomers, was highly volatile and would have been spectacularly visible with a fully developed 'coma' and tail by about 3600 BC.
At the same time, as other fragments worked their way down to Earth, humans would have witnessed 'intense meteor storms' and would almost certainly have been subjected to sustained periods of heavy bombardment by massive lumps of debris resulting in 'multiple Tunguska-type events'. In a nutshell, what Steel is claiming is that the Stonehenge axis, with its distinctive north-east orientation (he believes only coincidentally close to the rising point of the Sun on the summer solstice) was laid out as a kind of 'early warning system for cosmic impacts': From Stonehenge I ... as the comet neared the Earth it
would have appeared to rise in the evening with a huge bright stripe [the Taurid meteor trail] crossing much of the sky, originating in the north-east. Passage through the trail would then have resulted in celestial fireworks (and maybe worse); afterwards the comet and trail would have passed in the direction of the Sun, partially blocking sunlight for a few days ... It is suggested that Stonhenge was built. . .to allow the prediction of such events.

Beyond Stonehenge
by Gerald S. Hawkins
Harper & Row (1973)
Dorset Press (July 1, 1989)
Hubert Allen & Assoc. (March 1, 2001)

Hawkins takes readers on a whirlwind trip of the globe in search of ancient astronomy and a scientific understanding of calendar-keeping. (Architecture)




Stonehenge: Earth and Sky
by Gerald S. Hawkins and Hubert A Allen
Wessex Books (Jun 2004)
ISBN-10: 1903035244
ISBN-13: 978-1903035245

kliknij by powiekszc
Stonehenge is a uniquely fascinating part of our national heritage, a source of mystery and wonder for centuries. It has specially perplexed many scientists, some of whom have deeply pondered the significance of its alignments and numerics. Prominent among them was Gerald Hawkins, a pioneer "archaeo-astronomer" whose original ideas, publicised through his 1965 book "Stonehenge Decoded," have stimulated debate and controversy ever since. Sadly, he did not survive to see the publication of this book, co-authored with Hubert Allen. But this finely illustrated text is a fitting memorial to him, and will, as he would surely have hoped, help to introduce a new generation to Stonehenge and its mysteries. -- Sir Martin Reese, England&';s Astronomer Royal, from the back cover.


Sun, Moon & Stonehenge: High Culture in Ancient Britain
by Robin Heath
Blue Stone Press (January, 1998)
ISBN: 0952615177

Robin Heath has produced a beautifully illustrated book that opens up so many new and interesting facets to Stonehenge, including links to the Great Pyramid in Egypt, why it had to be built, where it is on the Earth, the many numerical and geometrical truths within its design and how the Sky really works.

This book is also a great introduction to stone circles in general, introducing their sacred geometries and alignment to the sky.
With over 250 pages and 150 diagrams and illustrations, the book is a seminal work on stone circle and sacred geometry, megalithic astronomy, calendars, related myths (eg Arthur) and the ancient landscape of Britain.
This is a book of cutting edge research, leading to both a simpler way to understand megalithic monuments and a new way of understanding the Sky, suggesting our ancestors must have designed Stonehenge accordingly. (

Stone Circles (Beginner's Guides)
by Robin Heath
Hodder Arnold H&S (June 21, 1999)
ISBN: 0340737727

An investigation of stone circles, questioning why they were built and why they are sited where they are. This text describes 50 sites and covers astro-archaeology, sacred geometry, shamanism and folklore as valid methods by which to understand the legacy left by the monolithic culture. (


by Robin Heath
Walker & Company (March 1, 2002)
ISBN: 0802713858

Once part of a large culture of stone circles, Stonehenge-built around 3000 B.C. and developed over the next 1,500 years-is the most famous. The remains of a once-wealthy and evidently learned tribal community, it reflects the apparently disparate subjects of archaeology, astronomy, metrology, sacred geometry, and even shamanism. How were eclipses predicted at Stonehenge? Why were some stones brought all the way from Wales? What is the secret geometry of seven eights? These and many other questions are answered-and Stonehenge's secrets revealed-in this fascinating small book.(



History in Evidence: Hunters and Early Farmers in Britain
by Margaret Herdman

Harrap Limited, London: 1982

Stonehenge began its life as a sacred site well before 2000 BC. It originally had a circular ditch with an external bank similar to the other henges, and one entrance. Just within the bank is a ring of holes, called the Aubrey Holes after John Aubrey who discovered them in the
seventeenth century. Many of these holes contained the burnt remains of human cremations. A stone known as the 'Heel stone' was placed outside the entrance to the earthwork at this time.

Around 2000 BC the entrance was widened so that it pointed more or less towards the summer solstice sunrise. The four station stones were placed just inside the ditch and work began on the erection of a double circle of blue stones which originally came from the Prescelly Mountains in south Wales. The Avenue, marked by banks and ditches, was constructed from the henge entrance to the banks of the River Avon.

In the next stage the bluestones were dismantled and the holes filled in. Just after zooo BC the massive outer ring of 30 upright sarsen stones, and the inner horseshoe of trilithons, were put up. Each trilithon consisted of two uprights with a lintel laid across the top.

Later, the bluestones were placed in an oval within the sarsen ring and then rearranged in a circle. A horseshoe of bluestones was placed within the sarsen horseshoe, with the altar stone standing upright in the centre. Outside the main sarsen ring, a double circle of holes was dug. Perhaps the holes were for more bluestones which, however, were never erected.

Thus Stonehenge was changed and added to for about 1000 years. It was started by Neolithic farmers who probably used it as a meeting place. It developed into a unique and impressive monument which had a religious meaning possibly associated with sun-worship. The positions of the stones are now thought to indicate an early knowledge of astronomy. There are other circles with stones carefully placed, particularly in Scotland and northern England where stone is plentiful, and these too may have something to do with astronomy. We shall never know for certain what happened at Stonehenge but it clearly was a very special place which surpassed other henges in importance and remained in use for much longer.

do góry

The Elements of Earth Mysteries
by Philip Heselton
Element Books Limited Shaftesbury, Dorset 1991

p. 66-67
With an unpolluted atmosphere and skies free from any city glow,together with a naturally heightened awareness of the totality of their environment, the sun, moon, stars and planets were an important background to ancient people. Sensitivity to the forces lying beneath the surface, seeing subtle connections between parts of the landscape that seem separate to us, would lead them inevitably to what we would call a form of astrology. Rather than call it 'primitive', I prefer to see it as direct, relating what happened on the Earth directly with events in the heavens. This astrology did not reside with ephemerides or in computer programs, but in personal daily knowledge of the movement of heavenly bodies through the sky: thus they were able to make the connections.
In this, I think, is to be found the origins of and impetus behind the arrangement of sites, the study of which has gone under the name of astro-archaeology, or, more recently, archaeo-astronomy. Both are based on the same belief: that ancient people throughout the world set out their mounds, standing stones and stone circles in a particular relationship to each other and to the natural features of the landscape such as hilltops and notches, so that lines were set up to mark significant dates of astronomical events in the annual and other cycles. Referring back to what I see as the purpose behind the whole practice, I have called it 'archaeo-astrology'.
Perhaps the best-known example is that of the Heel Stone at Stonehenge. From the centre of the circle, it marks the midsummer sunrise, to which the avenue is also aligned. The antiquarian, Stukeley, noted it in 1740, and it is quite possible that knowledge of this never died out'locally. In Ireland it was also generally known that the rays of the sun at winter solstice sunrise illuminated the chamber of the ancient mound at Newgrange. The relationship of this with the other mounds in the Boyne Valley area has been the subject of detailed investigation by Martin Brennan, who has demonstrated purposeful and exact siting and orientation. In the early 1960s, American Professor of Astronomy, Gerald Hawkins, analysed the positions of the stones at Stonehenge by computer and calculated the extreme rising and setting positions of sun and moon in 1500BC. He found twenty-four significant alignments. He further suggested that the fifty-six Aubrey holes could have been used as eclipse predictors, representing three cycles of the moon's nodes, each taking 18.6 years.
Alexander Thorn, formerly Professor of Engineering at Oxford, had been visiting stone circles since the 1930s making very accurate surveys. He found that only two-thirds are true circles: the rest are flattened circles, ellipses and egg-shapes, all made with relatively simple geometric construction and clearly deliberate. He also found that many of the stone circles were associated with other features some distance away, such as a standing stone, hillside notch or rock outcrop and that the lines to these features had astronomical significance. The most crucial test of this was at a standing stone at Kintraw, Argyll. Thorn said that midsummer sunset was observed from a small platform on a steep hillside overlooking the stone. Euan MacKie excavated the platform and found that it was artificial

From Stonehenge To Las Vegas: Archaeology As Popular Culture
by Cornelius Holtorf
AltaMira Press (May, 2005)
ISBN: 075910266X

Indiana Jones. Lara Croft. Archaeologist as folk hero, detective, treasure hunter. The meaning of things below the surface. The life history of Stonehenge. Las Vegas' Luxor Hotel. Copies of artifacts as contemporary kitch. The connections between archaeology and contemporary culture are endless. Cornelius Holtorf merges archaeological and cultural theory to take readers on an erudite tour of these intersections, using wide-ranging examples and compelling images to support his often controversial theses. Deliberately blurring the borders between past people and present meanings, this ambitious project seeks no less than the redefinition of the term "archaeology." Equal parts amusing, infuriating, and provocative, this work will interest students and teachers in archaeology, anthropology, cultural studies and human geography, as well as professionals in heritage management and museums.
About The Author
Cornelius Holtorf (born 1968) is assistant professor in the Institute of Archaeology and Ancient History at the University of Lund, Sweden. He gained his doctoral degree from the University of Wales with a study of the life history of megalithic monuments in Northeast Germany. After stints as an academic teacher and researcher at the University of Wales (Lampeter), Goteborg, and Cambridge, and a two-year Marie Curie Fellowship at the Swedish National Heritage Board in Stockhom, he moved to his current post at Lund. His research interests include the portrayal of archaeology in popular culture, excavations investigating the life history of megaliths at Monte da Igreja in southern Portugal, and the archaeology of zoos. He is the author of many academic papers and the "living" electronic monograph Monumental Past(2000-2004), and coeditor of Archaeology and Folklore (1999) and Philosophy and Archaeological Practice (2000). (AltaMira Press,

Using wide-ranging examples and compelling images to support his often controversial theses, including the assertion that the past is a renewable resource, Cornelius Holtorf merges archaeological and cultural theory to take readers on an erudite tour of these intersections. Deliberately blurring the borders between ipast peoplei and ipresent meaningsi, this ambitious project seeks no less than the redefinition of the term archaeology. Equal parts amusing, infuriating, provocative and thought-provoking, this work will interest students and teachers in archaeology, anthropology, cultural studies and human geography, as well as professionals in heritage management and museums. (amazon. com)

Most Notable Antiquity of Great Britain Vulgarly Called Stone Henge on Salisbury Plain
by Inigo Jones
Kessinger Publishing Co (1 Jul 2003)
ISBN: 0766167836

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1655. This discourse of Stonehenge is molded off and cast into rude form from some few undigested notes of the late judicious Architect, Inigo Jones. That so venerable an antiquity might not perish, but the world made beholding to him for restoring it to light encouraged this treatise. Due to the age and scarcity of the original we reproduced, some pages may be spotty, faded or difficult to read. Written in Old English.



Into the Unknown
Reader’s DIGEST association, INC
Pleasantville, New York/Montreal, 1983


Much of the new research focused on Stonehenge, and beginning in 1950 a decade of digging, the first full-scale excavation of the site, established that Stonehenge had been assembled over 1,000 or more years and in three distinct phases, each involving extraordinary engineering efforts. After the excavation of Stonehenge, refinements in radiocarbon-dating techniques led to an even more startling discovery: construction of Stonehenge had been started in roughly 2700 B.C. Similar revisions dated European megaliths as far back as 5000 B.C. The conclusion: The megaliths had come before the fabled pyramids and other Mediterranean monuments, and the local peoples of western Europe, those primitive farmers dismissed by earlier archeologists, had indeed built them without the assistance of Egyptian or Greek advisers.
In addition, they had performed an even more astonishing engineering feat at Avebury, just 18 miles to the northeast. There, the world's largest stone circle, in the words of John Aubrey, the English antiquarian who came upon it in the middle of a fox hunt in 1649, "did as much excell Stoneheng as a Cathedral does an ordinary Parish church."

(...)How did the megalith builders acquire their knowledge of as tronomy and mathematics? How did they pass their learning on without any form of writing? What force, or faith, ensured the continuity necessary to see the completion of such monumental enterprises through so many dark centuries? And why did this fire of learning, which would not be matched in Europe for an other 3,000 years, blaze so brightly only to die out?

The British Isles. A History of Four Nations
by Hugh Kearney
Cambridge University Press Cambridge, 1989

It has been suggested that the building of Stonehenge (begun c. 2500 B.C. but extending over a prolonged period of several hundred years) required 30 million man-hours to complete. (The long barrows of the early neolithic period needed a mere 10,000 man-hours.)




Uriel's Machine: Uncovering the Secrets of Stonehenge, Noah's Flood, and the Dawn of Civilization
by Christopher Knight Robert Lomas
Fair Winds Press (MA) August 2001 ISBN: 193141274X

From the Publisher
Modern scientific investigations show that Earth has been hit many times by objects such as comets and meteorites. Laboratory work on comet impact effects demonstrates that comets could cause tidal waves to exceed three miles tall and near 400 miles per hour. In the last 10,000 years, there have been two impacts of such proportion: a seven-fold impact into all the world's oceans around 7640 B.C., and a single impact into the Mediterranean Sea about 3150 B.C., the time of Noah's Flood. 
Uriel's Machine proves ancient Europeans not only survived the 7640 B.C. flood, but developed a highly advanced civilization dedicated to predicting and preparing for future meteoric impacts. Building an international network of sophisticated astronomical observatories, these ancient astronomers created accurate solar, lunar, and planetary calendars, measured the diameter of the Earth, and precisely predicted comet collisions years in advance. This was the true purpose of megalithic structures such as Stonehenge. In 3150 B.C., the ancients' predictions proved true, and their device -- Uriel's Machine -- allowed the reconstruction of civilization in a shattered world. 
Uriel's Machine also presents evidence that: There was a single global language on Earth A single female was a common ancestor to all living humans Angels bred with human women to create The Watchers, giant half-human beings The oral tradition of Freemasonry records real events 
A fascinating study of humankind's past, present, and future, Uriel's Machine proves the world was indeed flooded, but survived wholly due to these ancient Europeans, their heavenly knowledge, and one remarkable machine.

by William Lace
Lucent Books (April 2003)
ISBN-10: 159018131X
ISBN-13: 978-1590181317

kliknij by powiekszycSynopsis
"The Mystery Library" examines those strange, often unbelievable or unexplainable events that have fascinated people through the ages. This volume discusses the mystery and theories surrounding the ancient stone structure in Wiltshire, England, called Stonehenge, whose purpose has been puzzled over at least since the 12th century. Stonehenge is a mysterious ring of weathered stones - some standing tall, others fallen and shattered - standing on a windswept plain in southwestern Britain for centuries. Only slowly has it yielded up clues as to who built it, when, how, and - above all - why? Even after centuries of study and use of the latest scientific methods, the answer to the last question remains elusive.



Stonehenge and Other British Stone Monuments Astronomically Considered
by Norman Lockyer
Kessinger Publishing (April 2003)
ISBN: 076615162X

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1909. Although the author's inquiries are still incomplete, he brought together some of the notes he had collected, as they may induce other inquirers to go on with the work. The reader must form his own judgment as to the direction in which the evidence tends. Lockyer believed the view that our ancient monuments were built to observe and mark the rising and setting places of the heavenly bodies is now fully established with the evidence.(Kessinger Publishing)



Stonehenge (Great Structures in History)
by Rachel Lynette
KidHaven Press (November 1, 2004)
ISBN: 0-7377-1562-6

People come to Great Britain from all over the world to see Stonehenge. Even in ruins, the giant stones are awe-inspiring. This book tells how archeologists think ancient people constructed Stonehenge and what those people might have used it for. Also included is information about what is being done to preserve Stonehenge. (KidHaven Press)

Grade 4-7–Slim series titles that focus on how and why these early structures were built, construction obstacles, and cultural and practical significance. Restorations, and present conditions and uses are also examined. Information is presented in a straightforward manner with lots of description, but the writing is uneven. The one or two clear, captioned full-color photographs, diagrams, or computer-generated illustrations found on each spread are well placed and will aid understanding. Some descriptions would have benefited from visuals. Dimensions and measurements are given in the inch-pound and metric systems. The basic information is here, but lots of fine books already exist on these subjects. (from School Library Journal)

The Mystery of Stonehenge
by Nancy Lyon
Raintree Pub (December 1, 1977)
ISBN: 0817210490

Reading level: Ages 9-12
Discusses the theories and superstitions that have arisen throughout the years to explain the existence of the circle of stones at Stonehenge. (Card catalog description)


Stonehenge (Digging for the Past)
by Caroline Malone, Nancy Stone Bernard, Brian Fagan 
Oxford University Press; (May 1, 2002)

kliknij by powiększyćFrom School Library Journal
Grade 3-6-Beginning with two small orientation maps that assume readers know that the monument is in England, Bernard and Malone start off with a lengthy chapter relating the myths and misconceptions about this mysterious circle of stones. Youngsters who have no context for understanding this information will find it confusing and disjointed. The authors promise to answer questions about why, how, and when Stonehenge was built, but they fail to offer many concrete answers. Six pages are devoted to sidebar discussions of scientific dating, megaliths, aerial discoveries, and an interview with Malone that adds little to understanding Stonehenge. The full-color illustrations, diagrams, and photographs are often small and it is sometimes unclear what viewers are supposed to see. The glossary is helpful but the further readings are almost entirely adult titles. There are few books available on the subject for this audience, but libraries may want to wait for a livelier, clearer presentation to add to their collections.
Jeanette Larson, Texas State Library, Austin
Copyright 2002 Reed Business Information, Inc.

Stonehenge (Building History Series)
by Wendy Mass
Lucent Books (April 1, 1998)
ISBN: 1560064323

Discusses the history, construction, and possible purposes of Stonehenge.
"Stonehenge" is written for a juvenile audience but Mass does not water down the material for her audience. Young students researching Stonehenge will find this a superb research volume for their efforts. The Building History series looks at the stories behind the construction of some of the world's greatest structures from the pyramids of Giza to the Panama Canal. Sidebars provide additional information about the personalities of the builders and the technology that influenced the building process. "Stonehenge" is illustrated with black & white photographs, excellent diagrams, maps, and drawings of the site and its construction. The volume also has a chronology of important dates that provide students with an overview of the evolution and use of Stonehenge as well as two bibliographies, one for student research and the other listing works consulted by Mass in preparing the book.(

 Stonehenge: The Secret of the Solstice
by Terence Meaden 
Souvenir Press Limited, October 1997 ISBN: 0285633643

coverFrom the Publisher
Illustrated with stunning photographs, this book shows how the known facts from such diverse fields as archaeology, anthropology, and primitive religion contribute to a better understanding of stone age monuments. Five years of exhaustive research have unveiled a simple, beautiful, and natural explanation for the creation of Stonehenge. It was not built as an astronomical observatory, nor is it the result of complicated mathematics. Instead, it is the result of humans working in harmony with natural phenomena to create a symbol of worship that lay at the heart of religion practiced in Britain and Ireland during the neolithic and bronze ages. Stonehenge is an in-depth look at the monument that is perennially fascinating to millions of people.


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